Categories
Nootropics

The 14 Best Nootropics for Anxiety

As we collect evidence provided to us by our ever-expanding group, we’ve come up with a few good remedies. Anxiolytic drugs are known to “relieve anxiety”.[1] Many of us suffer from anxiety ranging from slight to severe impairment. It is wise to note that some drugs, such as Bacopa, have enhanced efficacy after chronic administration.[2] Others, such as Tenoten, are applied sublingually and can be used to treat acute anxiety.[3] Any of the information here is not to be used or substituted for medical advice.

Bacopa

4 out of 5 stars
Bacopa monnieri nootropics for anxiety
Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most important herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been used for centuries as a mental tonic originating in India.

Bacopa has been shown in studies to relieve anxiety, improve cognition, and enhance memory formation.[4] [5] In a rat study, Bacopa increased the levels of serotonin and enhanced the gene expression of serotonin transporters[6]. Studies have shown a relationship between high levels of serotonin and positive mood.[7] [8]

Bacopa also appears to have an adaptogenic effect by reducing the biochemical effects of stress.[9]

To fully appreciate the positive effects of Bacopa, it needs to be taken consistently. Studies have shown more improvement as time passes. [10]

Ashwagandha

4 out of 5 stars

Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is a popular herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. In Sanskrit, Ashwagandha means “the smell of a horse”, because of its unmistakable smell. It is also believed to give vitality and the “strength of a stallion”.

Ashwagandha is believed to act as a neuroprotector, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, thyroid-booster, and libido enhancer.

Ashwagandha activates GABA-A receptors, the mechanism of action responsible for its anxiolytic and sleep-inducing effects.[11]

It has been shown to be as effective as fluoxetine for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a mice study.[12]

L-Theanine

3 out of 5 stars
Matcha
Matcha is a Japanese green tea with a very high Theanine content

L-Theanine is a natural amino acid contained in green tea. Most store-bought teas contain minimal amounts of L-Theanine, however, concentrations are greater in teas such as matcha, gyokuro, and kabusecha.

L-Theanine is structurally similar the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA.[13] L-Theanine is also a neuroprotective agent[14] which increases the amounts of serotonin, dopamine, and GABA in various areas of the brain.[15] It’s commonly used with stimulants, — like caffeine or amphetamines —, to reduce side effects, but it is also effective by itself.

Inositol

3 out of 5 stars

Inositol is a sugar involved in cellular signaling and as a component of cell membranes. There are nine different inositol molecules. The most abundant of these being myo-inositol.

Inositol was once considered a B vitamin (formerly Vitamin B8). It was later found to be producible by the human body, disproving it as an essential nutrient. It is naturally found in small quantities in milk products, fruits, and vegetables.

Research shows high dose Inositol supplementation (18 g) was as effective as fluvoxamine (150 mg) in decreasing the number of panic attacks[16] and reducing the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). [17]

Phenibut

5 out of 5 stars

Phenibut is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative.

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The mechanism of action of conventional anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol) increase GABA levels. This is what gives them anti-anxiety, sleep-inducing, tranquilizing, and anticonvulsive effects.

Phenibut was developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s as a non-sedative alternative to benzodiazepines. Phenibut is part of the Russian cosmonaut medical kit as a treatment for stress.

Phenibut activates GABA-B receptors[18] and boosts dopamine levels.[19]

Picamilon

2 out of 5 stars

Picamilon is another Russian nootropic made by combining niacin (vitamin B3) and GABA. This allows Picamilon to cross the blood–brain barrier[20] and have anxiolytic and vasodilating[21] effects.

It is used in Russia as a treatment for anxiety, depression[22], alcoholism[23], and brain damage.[24]

Aniracetam

3 out of 5 stars

Aniracetam (known as Ampamet in Europe) is a compound of Racetam family. It is a fat-soluble derivative of Piracetam.

Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors. AMPA is one of the main three excitatory neurotransmitters (the other two being NMDA and kainate receptors). Compounds that act on AMPA receptors are called AMPAkines.

AMPAkines are substances which exhibit neuroprotective and cognition enhancing effects[25]. Some of these have been investigated as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions[26]. Aniracetam is also a potential anxiolytic[27] and antidepressant.[28] Anecdotal evidence states that Aniracetam is effective in some individuals, while others are non-responders.

Coluracetam

4 out of 5 stars

Coluracetam is a relatively new Japanese nootropic drug with little clinical backing. Unlike Piracetam, Coluracetam directly affects High Affinity Choline Uptake.[29] It was shelved after failing to demonstrate efficacy for Alzheimer’s.

Phase IIa clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for comorbid MDD with GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder).

Anecdotal reports state Coluracetam is responsible for a sensation of “HD Vision” as well as lowered anxiety.

Fasoracetam

3 out of 5 stars
Fasoracetam, a novel nootropic
Fasoracetam, a potent and novel nootropic which shows promise to relieve anxiety, as well as reduce ADHD symptoms.

Fasoracetam, also referred to as NS-105, is a novel cognitive enhancer. Fasoracetam is a high-affinity choline reuptake inhibitor, similar to Coluracetam.[30] Many refer to this particular mechanism of action as “HD vision”.

Fasoracetam can act as a sustainable anxiolytic since long-term administration upregulates GABA-B receptors.[31] Anecdotal reports have noted both acute and chronic anxiolytic effects.

Treatment of ADHD, by NS-105, is mediated through modulation of mGluR glutamate receptors.[32] In other words, those suffering from ADHD and/or anxiety may benefit from Fasoracetam’s purported effects.

Tianeptine

5 out of 5 stars

Tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) developed in France circa 1960. Tianeptine embodies a unique mechanism of action, unlike other TCAs.

Tianeptine was originally believed to be a Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer. Recent research suggests its antidepressant effect is due to the activation of μ-opioid and δ-opioid receptors[33] as well as modulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors.[34]

Tianeptine efficacy is comparable to fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and imipramine (with significantly fewer side effects).[35]

Tenoten

2.5 out of 5 stars

Tenoten is a simultaneous nootropic and anxiolytic with novel properties. Unlike GABA agonists, Tenoten treats anxiety “based on antibodies to the brain-specific protein S-100B”.[36]

“Testing at the Russian Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics indicate Tenoten was as clinically effective as amitryptiline (Elavil), sertraline (Zoloft), and phenazepam (a benzodiazepine) for the reduction of anxiety but without sedation. It further recommended Tenoten for patients with moderate cognitive impairment”.[37]

“[Tenoten] demonstrated considerable improvement of the control over brain frontal compartment effector functions”.[38]

In a small trial group of 50 children, Tenoten showed efficacy for the treatment of ADHD symptoms.[39]

Selank

3.5 out of 5 stars

Selank, is an analog of the endogenous peptide tuftsin. Since tuftsin has innate immunomodulatory capabilities, Selank is also able to regulate T cell cytokines.[40] In this way, Selank can be seen as having immunomodulatory properties.

Unlike common anxiolytics, Selank does not cause sedation or cognitive impairment. It is non-habit forming and does not cause withdrawal symptoms.

Selank modulates monoamine transmitters[41] and catalyzes the metabolism of serotonin.[42] Selank causes rapid elevation of BDNF, solidifying its place as a cognitive enhancer.[43]

Although Selank’s mechanism of action is largely misunderstood, evidence suggests it lowers levels of tau(1/2) leu-enkephalin.[44]

Afobazole

3 out of 5 stars

Afobazole (also known by its scientific name Fabomotizole) is a Russian anxiolytic drug which does not possess sedative properties unlike most anxiolytics. Afobazole, similar to Fasoracetam, upregulates GABA receptors.[45] Afobazole restores GABA to healthy levels following ischemia.[46] This is widely regarded to be Afobazoles main anxiolytic mechanism of action.

Fabomotizole also induces BDNF and NGF release, agonizes MT3 receptors, and reversibly inhibits MAO-A [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]. Since Afobazole directly effects BDNF and NGF, it is also classified as a nootropic. Caution should be taken when combining Afobazole with other MAO inhibiting substances. Afobazole may also have an antidepressant effect.

Kava

4 out of 5 stars

Kava is a GABAergic drug which affects the GABA-A receptor in several ways. Kava exhibits reverse tolerance. It is a less-harmful alternative to common GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The alkaloids chiefly responsible for Kava’s mechanism of action are called kavalactones.[52] It is becoming apparent that although Kava is confirmed to modulate GABA-A receptors, it may do so in a different method than direct agonism.[53] It appears Kava potentiates GABA-A through poorly understood means.[54] GABA-A receptor density increased following administration of Kava, suggesting both upregulating and sensitizing properties.[55]

A common concern for Kava usage lies in its purported hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity of Kava is a direct result of the extract or plant matter obtained, suggesting quality is paramount to avoiding liver damage. “Risk factors included overdose, prolonged treatment, and comedication with synthetic drugs and dietary supplements”.[56] Indigenous tribes have been using Kava for centuries, with minimal consequences. One can assume toxicity is directly affected by the quality of the plant used.

Most, but not all, of clinical studies, have demonstrated Kava’s efficacy as an anxiolytic. Standardized extract demonstrated the highest efficacy versus placebo. 1 week of chronic administration may be necessary to feel its effects. Evidence suggests Kava may aid in the treatment of insomnia and sleeplessness.[57]

References   [ + ]

1. Definition of anxiolytic by Merriam-Webster
2, 10. Enhanced dendritic arborization of hippocampal CA3 neurons by Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats.
3. The use of tenoten and tenoten (pediatric formulation) as a drug for premedication in adults and children during outpatients dentist visit.
4. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.
5. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview.
6. Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation.
7. Associations between whole-blood serotonin and subjective mood in healthy male volunteers.
8. Serotonergic function in the central nervous system is associated with daily ratings of positive mood.
9. Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi).
11. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex.
12. Influence of Withania somnifera on obsessive compulsive disorder in mice.
13, 14. Neuroprotective effects of theanine and its preventive effects on cognitive dysfunction
15. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent.
16. Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder.
17. Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
18. On neurotransmitter mechanisms of reinforcement and internal inhibition.
19. Phenibut (beta-phenyl-GABA): a tranquilizer and nootropic drug.
20. Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals.
21. The new cerebrovascular preparation pikamilon.
22. The results of clinical study of the drug Picamilon (analysis of data of neurologic and psychiatric clinics) – AP Huaichenko, RP Kruglikova-Lvova
23. Picamilon Application in Therapy of Patients with Alcoholism, – Novikov VE, Kovaleva LA
24. Picamilon Application in the Complex of Regenerative Therapy of Patients after Insultus
25. AMPA receptor potentiators for the treatment of CNS disorders.
26. Benzofurazan compounds which enhance AMPA receptor activity
27. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism.
28. Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action.
29. MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, ameliorates working memory deficits and decreased hippocampal acetylcholine induced by ethylcholine aziridinium ion in mice
30. Involvement of cholinergic and GABAergic systems in the reversal of memory disruption by NS-105, a cognition enhancer.
31. Effect of a novel cognition enhancer NS-105 on learned helplessness in rats: possible involvement of GABA(B) receptor up-regulation after repeated treatment.
32. A novel cognition enhancer NS-105 modulates adenylate cyclase activity through metabotropic glutamate receptors in primary neuronal culture.
33. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.
34. The neurobiological properties of Tianeptine (Stablon): from monoamine hypothesis to glutamatergic modulation
35. Tianeptine: a review of its use in depressive disorders.
36, 37, 38. Tenoten in the therapy of patients with moderate cognitive impairment.
39. Clinical efficacy of tenoten for children in treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder
40. Immunomodulatory effects of selank in patients with anxiety-asthenic disorders
41. Effects of heptapeptide selank on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in the brain of BALB/C and C57Bl/6 mice: a comparative study
42. Comparison of the effects of selank and tuftsin on the metabolism of serotonin in the brain of rats pretreated with PCPA
43. Intranasal administration of the peptide Selank regulates BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus in vivo.
44. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of action of a new peptide anxiolytic selank in the therapy of generalized anxiety disorders and neurasthenia
45, 46. Effects of afobazole on the content of neurotransmitter amino acids in the striatum in global transient ischemia.
47. Clinical study of the selective anxiolytic agent afobazol
48. Gabaergic mechanism of cerebrovascular and neuroprotective effects of afobazole and picamilon
49. Effects of afobazole on the BDNF content in brain structures of inbred mice with different phenotypes of emotional stress reaction
50. Selective anxiolytic afobazole increases the content of BDNF and NGF in cultured hippocampal HT-22 line neurons
51. Interaction of afobazole with sigma1-receptors
52, 57. Kava kava | University of Maryland Medical Center
53, 54, 55. Kavapyrone enriched extract from Piper methysticum as modulator of the GABA binding site in different regions of rat brain.
56. Kava hepatotoxicity–a clinical review.
Categories
Bacopa Nootropics

Bacopa Monnieri: The Most Impressive Natural Nootropic

Bacopa monnieri, commonly referred to as Bacopa, it’s a plant that has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine. In India, it is also referred to as Brahmi. In the last two decades, many Ayurvedic plants, like Ashwagandha, Brahmi, and Gotu Kola, have been shown to be effective not only in Ayurveda classic books but also in scientific studies; the extract, in particular, has been shown to be as effective as some prescription medications.

Background and Benefits

Perhaps more than other top nootropics, Bacopa highlights the importance of the individual and the makeup of his biology on any given day. Although it reliably promotes enhanced memory and vivid dreaming, other effects are less consistent, often due to the large variety in potency between the different products on the market. Luckily, in the last few years, a standardized and pharmaceutical grade extract has been developed, named Bacognize®.

Bacopa Ayurvedic Medicine BenefitsIt is known to produce clarity or a slight fog, making you relaxed or slightly moody, with the potentiality of leading to mild physical symptoms (like muscle aches and intestinal bloating). In spite of all this critical talk, Bacopa is one of the most underestimated supplements, and this article will paint it as one with profound healing and nootropic abilities. Confused? Don’t worry; we got you covered!

Some of the benefits of Bacopa (according to both scientific research and anecdotal experiences) are:

  • It is neuroprotective[1] and significantly improves acquisition and retention of memories.[2]
  • It also increases acetylcholine synthesis and promotes neurogenesis by enhancing the activity of BDNF and NGF[3]
  • It has anxiolytic[4], antidepressant[5] and anti-stress effects.[6]
  • It is an antioxidant and increases lifespan in animal studies.[7]
  • It is anti-inflammatory[8] and cardioprotective.[9]
  • Bacopa may also help people with epilepsy[10], as well as children with ADHD.[11]

The sedative effect of Bacopa is almost always in the foreground, though anecdotal reports show that this effect happens most strongly at the beginning and tends to disappear after a month (or two) of consistent use. In fact, studies have shown that Bacopa’s peak nootropic effect is seen after two months[12], and keeps on getting stronger as time passes, while the anxiolytic effects are usually felt right from the first dose.

Anecdotal Reports

Before we get into the specifics of Bacopa, let’s have a look at some of the anecdotal experiences in the nootropics community to get a better understanding of how it works in healthy individuals outside the lab.

From Reddit user Nedzilla55

[…] My first nootropic experience, and it was a good one. I noticed acute effects of lowered anxiety, and over the course of a few months noticed increased memory. This amazing herb is subtle enough that I feel normal, but noticeable enough that I felt less stress and anxiety. I didn’t even realize how great it was until I got off of it, and started experiencing my usual increased anxiety. It wasn’t like an acute “Wow, I feel so calm” feeling, more like a background calm. Like turning down the volume of anxiety a couple of notches. Looking back at it, the 6-7 months I used it I was in a much better place mentally. […]

From Reddit user YoungRedPiller —

So I’ve been taking Bacopa Monnieri for about a month at this point. […] I’ll try to explain my experience with it so far.
I’ve heard that the memory effects take at least 8 weeks to show effect but I’ve been feeling some quite significant changes in my ability to recall events that have happened in the past month. It’s also improved the quality of these memories. This is a very nice effect that is very appreciated because I feel if i stick it out for another month my memory will improve noticeably.
One other effect that it’s had that I didn’t really expect it to have was that it made me completely apathetic. To everything. Studying, reading, music, doing anything at all. I’m completely careless to everything and my motivation to do things is very little. But when I start doing things, I don’t want to stop. It’s had a profound effect on my attention. I don’t know if the attention is because of the apathy or something but attention is another aspect that I like about Bacopa. Also due to the apathy, my anxiety is also very minimal in any situation. I completely have a fuck it attitude. Very appreciated as I used to be quite hyperactive.
It’s made me very calm, serene and genuinely carefree. […]

From Reddit user Tester12311

The first month: Contrary to anecdotal reports, I could definitely feel the bacopa kicking in. It acted almost as a mild downer and a definite anxiolytic. I felt calm, chilled out, and careless. […] Many initial reports include drowsiness and upset stomach. Though Bacopa did make me drowsy at first, I can only think of very specific instances with stomach upset which could easily have been as a result of what I ate that day. Besides these mild effects, there was not much else for Bacopa within the first month.
The second month and now: Throughout this entire period of taking Bacopa, I would constantly test my memory to see if it was improving. […] To be completely honest, it is very difficult to measure how much I can and cannot remember. But I can say that when people ask me if I remember something they said the week previous, I am more likely to respond positively. I am also more lucid with conversation topics as I can tie together the flow of a conversation from one topic to another. One can assume that my immediate working memory has greatly improved. […] Bacopa’s anxiolytics effects have also had a nice influence on my life. I am less nervous about social interactions especially with women or job interviews. It has gotten to the point where I really just do not care what people I don’t know think of me. […]
One of the most gratifying and prominent effects that I feel from Bacopa is the attention boost. I have a have a very strong grip on whatever I am doing. It has made reading and studying easier. I can sit and become enamored by a book. I hated reading before Bacopa. I love it now. […]

Learning and Memory

Bacopa Extract PowderBacopa is perhaps most notable for its ability to enhance memory and cognitive performance in mice.[13] In humans, this translates most clearly to improved consolidation of memories into long-term memory.[14] In these respects, bacopa has received a comparable amount of attention (in academic journals) as more mainstream and publicized herbal cognitive enhancers, such as ginkgo.

Later sections will expound on neurotransmitters, serotonin and acetylcholine in particular, which have, respectively anti-stress and pro-cognitive effects. Like other herbal nootropics, its mechanism also relies on adaptogenic properties or lowering stress (this is touched on below, from the perspective of “cytokines,” the body’s natural inflammatory agents).

While not as pronounced as the effect on long-term memory, Bacopa may also be useful for short-term memory, concentration, focus, motivation, and the likes. Clinical studies have found it effective against ADHD[15]. Another study has drawn the same conclusions[16]. This is especially encouraging for those who want to stay away from Adderall, Ritalin, and other pharmaceutical choices, and into other choices which may be more sustainable and less taxing on the psyche.

Inflammation

Inflammation, like oxidation, is too often presented in the press, and almost never in a light which sheds true insight on its value; gradually the public loses interest in the hype and falls into more conservative waters. Despite any skepticism, bacopa has real and impressive anti-inflammatory properties[17]. These anti-inflammatory properties are closely related to its anti-dementia effects, which are as potent as curcumin, and like curcumin may open the avenues in Alzheimer’s research for more potent semi-synthetic derivatives.

Cytokines are compounds which the body releases in response to stress or infection, and although they help to control certain illness, they can quickly lead to runaway inflammation. Many herbal nootropics work in part by regulating this runaway, negative feedback “loop.” Although it is perhaps not as strong as curcumin, there are a few studies and books summarizing bacopa’s effects on inflammation.

Epilepsy

It has been shown in multiple studies to be as effective as common antiepileptic meds. This is likely related to its effect as a modulator of GABA[18], although a direct modulation of glutamate cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor.[19]

Oxidative Stress

The anti-stress effect may be directly related to the antioxidant capacity, as suggested by evidence[20]. Although antioxidants are beaten to death in the media, it is important in the absence of rigorous ORAC testing (free radical savaging capacity) to recognize when a particular food or supplement shows promising activity[21]. Ginkgo, bacopa, turmeric and ginger all show potential here. You can look up the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ratings for turmeric and ginger to get a rough idea of their potency.

Serotonin and BDNF

Besides its broad antioxidant properties, perhaps the most studied mechanisms of Bacopa have been centered on serotonin[22][23]. It has been shown to upregulate the serotonin transporter (SERT) and to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an animal model of depression[24]. The magnitude of the BDNF effect is supported by studies investigating bacopa’s ability to substantially improve the growth and survival of dendrites and axons: the fragile, spindly structures allowing for communication between neurons.

Dopamine and glutamate

Although bacopa is known to restore dopamine function[25], and as mentioned above, glutamate function as well, it is still not clear the extent to which these factors play into its nootropic qualities. The acetylcholine, serotonin, antioxidant and (as we will touch on later) the cardiovascular properties all likely outshine dopamine and glutamate in this respect.

Physical Health

Bacopa Monnieri has been implicated in increasing specifically cerebral blood flow independent of overall blood pressure[26] it can also decrease blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) independent of heart rate[27] by releasing nitric oxide — a molecule that helps cells communicate with each other — from the endothelium.

Bacopa is also cardioprotective, and in research has been showed to protect from several cardiotoxic substances, such as isoprotenerol.[28] and may likely have a protective effect for everyday cardiotoxic activities like smoking. drinking, and taking stimulants.

Although it has primarily been studied on opiate (morphine) related kidney damage (where it was found to be effective[29]), it may serve in the otherwise healthy as a general tonifying agent in the kidneys.

Contraindications

Due to its cholinergic activity, those with a known mood disorder should approach bacopa extremely cautiously. High acetylcholine levels have even been used in lab mice to simulate bipolar and borderline features[30].

Bacopa has a potent stimulatory effect on the thyroids. Persons with known thyroid conditions are accordingly advised to consult a healthcare professional before considering bacopa.
As said before, it is known to accumulate heavy metals. Nowadays, most nootropic suppliers have certificates of analysis, and this is not raised as a concern.

Closing Remarks

Buy Bacognize capsulesAlthough bacopa’s initial sedative effect may be partially balanced out by natural energizers, such as ginseng, cocoa or royal jelly, we are recommending you consult a healthcare professional before beginning such an aggressive regimen. It is instead more strongly recommended to simply lower the dose, particularly when using the 50% extract which some people may find too intense.

By the way, you can buy Bacognize capsules and powder at Nootropics Depot. Or, if you’re on a tight budget, check out Powder City’s bulk 50% extract and 20% extract capsules. I personally recommend the capsules as the powder has an unpleasant taste. The dosage depends on the type of extract you have, typically a 50% extract like Bacognize is taken 300 mg once or twice a daily, while a 20% extract is taken at 500-650 mg two to three times a day. It is typically taken with food.

The good news is that much of bacopa’s nootropic effect is cumulative. Although it does take up to four to six months to see full effects, modest effects can still be observed from switching to the lower dose after a mere two months. This is especially true when it is paired off in the long-term with other highly effective and synergistic supplements. You could even take it just one summer, completely remove it from your stack after that point, and still theoretically retain some of its nootropic qualities.

Bacopa Monnieri
6.5
Focus
7.5
Mood
8.5
Memory
5
Stimulation
9
Relaxation
9
Safety
Reviewer 8

References   [ + ]

1. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monniera extract against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat brain (2006)
2, 14. Chronic Effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on Human Memory (2002)
3. Bacopa monnieri and L-deprenyl differentially enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and nerve growth factor via ERK 1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the spleen of female wistar rats. (2013)
4. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: An experimental study. (1998)
5. Antidepressant-like effects of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera in mice (2015)
6. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
7. Bacopa monnieri promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans under stress conditions (2015)
8. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
9, 28. Cardioprotective Effect of Bacopa monneira Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Necrosis in Rats (1997)
10, 19. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract. (2008)
11, 15. An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. (2014)
12. Effects of a Standardized Bacopa monnieri Extract on Cognitive Performance, Anxiety, and Depression in the Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (2008)
13. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice (2004)
16. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol. (2015)
17. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
18. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A. (2012)
20. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
21. Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. (2015)
22, 23. Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation. (2011)
24. Chronic Administration of Bacopa Monniera Increases BDNF Protein and mRNA Expressions: A Study in Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Animal Model of Depression (2014)
25. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats. (2013)
26. Bacopa monnieri increases cerebral blood flow in rat independent of blood pressure. (2013)
27. Bacopa monnieri and its constituents is hypotensive in anaesthetized rats and vasodilator in various artery types. (2011)
29. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity (2016)
30. Modeling bipolar disorder in mice by increasing acetylcholine or dopamine: chronic lithium treats most, but not all features. (2015)