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Nootropics Phenylpiracetam Racetams

Phenylpiracetam — Stimulant Nootropic: Effects, Dosage & Experiences

Those who spend any amount of time looking into nootropics will be very familiar with the racetam class of nootropics, a group of drugs that are structural derivatives of piracetam. These drugs display variance in the details of their effects, but they all exhibit neuroprotectant and cognitive-enhancing properties.
One of these piracetam derivatives, phenylpiracetam, is appealing to many nootropic users due to its many purported benefits.

Background and Benefits

phenylpiracetam nootropicPhenylpiracetam is frequently cited to display the following effects:[1][2]

  • Memory enhancement
  • Anti-amnesia
  • Antidepressant
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antipsychotic
  • Anxiolytic

If phenylpiracetam does indeed have these listed properties, its appeal extends beyond just the sphere of nootropics. Any drug with that kind of resume is certainly impressive. Here we will examine this unique substance and its purported effects.

Phenylpiracetam, also known by its Russian pharmaceutical names Phenotropil and Carphedon, was developed in Russia in the 1980s as a piracetam derivative, with the hopes that it would display and expand upon the nootropic properties that make piracetam such a popular drug. Specifically, phenylpiracetam is a phenylated analog of piracetam, meaning that it is essentially a piracetam molecule with a phenyl group attached. Interestingly, some have theorized that phenylpiracetam’s purported stimulant effects may be due to the molecule’s similarity to phenethylamine (and, by extension, amphetamine).

These potential stimulant properties, along with phenylpiracetam’s ability to improve physical stamina, has led to the drug being banned from use in Olympic competitions.[3]

phenylpiracetam-nootropic-stimulant

Dosage, Mechanism, and Effects

Phenylpiracetam is typically sold by online vendors in its pure powder form or as pharmaceutical tablets. Most of these sources sell a racemic mixture of the molecule, but some of the studies done on the effects of phenylpiracetam were conducted using only the R-isomer.

Phenylpiracetam Phenotropil Nootropic
Original Russian Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil)

A single dose of phenylpiracetam typically ranges from 100200 mg. Most prescription guidelines state that phenylpiracetam can be taken 2-3 times per day, as the drug will exert effects on the body for about 4-6 hours before receding. It should be noted that most anecdotal reports from users indicate that phenylpiracetam builds up a tolerance rather quickly, so it might not be wise to use it for days in a row. That being said, the drug appears to be relatively safe to use regardless of tolerance buildup.

Phenylpiracetam’s mechanism of action still remains largely uncertain. While various studies have been conducted on its effects, few have dealt with the specifics of its pharmacology. However, one study performed on rats found that phenylpiracetam decreased the density of nACh and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus when they had previously been given scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug.

Phenylpiracetam was also found to increase the density of the D1, D2, and D3 dopamine receptors[4]. Dopamine receptors are important for motivation, arousal, pleasure, and memory.

It also appears that phenylpiracetam’s enantiomers have unique effects and properties. Most notably, studies indicate that the R-enantiomer is mostly responsible for its stimulating and cognition-enhancing effects while the S-enantiomer may be more responsible for stopping cognitive decline.[5]

One of the drug’s biggest potential uses is for treating cognitive decline brought on by diseases like Alzheimer’s. Various studies have been conducted in Russia studying the effect of phenylpiracetam on cognitive decline caused by organic causes. These studies found that phenylpiracetam improved the cognition of those with Alzheimer’s disease, and showed minor effectiveness in improving the cognition of patients afflicted with epilepsy. The drug did not, however, appear to improve cognition for those whose cognitive decline was brought on by traumatic brain injury.[6] In a study conducted on 400 patients with ischemic stroke, phenylpiracetam was able to improve cognition when taken at a dose of 400 mg per day for one year.[7]

There is currently no research conducted on phenylpiracetam’s effect on cognition in young, healthy subjects, although anecdotal reports throughout the internet suggest that it does improve cognition among those with no cognitive disorders. One study conducted on rats found that the R-enantiomer of phenylpiracetam was able to enhance cognition, but this result has not been replicated in any study using the racemic mixture.[8]

Zhiliuk, Mamchur & Pavlov[9] found that Phenylpiracetam improves the processes of learning and storing conditional skills when studying cognitive processes and functional state of mitochondria in the neocortex of alloxan-diabetic rats.[10]

Gustov, Smirnov, Korshunova IuA and Andrianova argue that Phenylpiracetam is beneficial to people who develop cognitive deficits and/or depression after encephalopathy and brain injuries.[11] It increased quality of life in patients with encephalopathy after acute lesions (30 people), brain traumas (33 people) and glioma surgery (36 people). The average Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (a 30-point questionnaire) from baseline improved in all groups. Anxiety improved and depression declined substantially, resulting in less discomfort and better ability to execute everyday activities.[12]

phenylpiracetam memorySome preliminary studies have found phenylpiracetam to have antidepressant properties. However, this area of effect has not seen as much research as the area of cognitive enhancement. A study performed on rats found that when phenylpiracetam was administered to rats, it significantly reduced depression symptoms caused by a forced-swim test.[13] A study conducted on human patients with cognitive decline concluded that phenylpiracetam is able to alleviate symptoms of depression.[14]

Perhaps one of the most unique and attractive benefits of phenylpiracetam is its ability to act as a psychostimulant. However, this effect is not very well researched, although one experiment conducted on rats found that phenylpiracetam increases locomotor activity for upwards of 2 hours.[15]

Anecdotal Reports

As with any nootropic drug that has not seen as much clinical research as one might hope, it is useful to look at anecdotal reports from users to give a fuller picture of the drug’s effects. Obviously, individual user reports are especially prone to the placebo effect and should be weighed and judged by the reader with caution.

Reddit user The_Antagonist said –

At the peak of it’s effects (about an hour in) I feel intense focus, not especially jittery, unless stacked with something else, just pure attention, and a complete abolishment of any lethargy I would have been feeling previously. It’s not really a euphoric compound, but I’ve noticed it seems to make me significantly happier when I’m accomplishing something on it. It might be the racetam effects rearing their head, but solving mathematical problems, or gaining a more complete understanding of a concept just feels plain good. This attribute [in particular], for me at least, makes it a hell of a study drug.[16]

Reddit user Notlambda

I’m not a social butterfly. I’m retarded when it comes to explaining a concept or defending an argument.
On phenylpiracetam (or daily doses of piracetam), I’m a social genius. What it feels like is that I’m not the one saying the words that I’m saying. It’s like I feed a “command” into a register in my brain that is then picked up by whatever part of my cortex deals with speech, and then I find myself just saying the perfect words to explain everything concisely.
It’s like I’m watching somebody else be awesome, but that somebody else is me. It’s really nice because I can free the rest of my mind to think about concepts while the “other” me is doing all the talking.
It’s also very subtle. I’m explaining this like it’s a dissociative experience or something like that. It’s not.[17]

From user le_unknown

I’ve had great results with phenylpiracetam. Without a doubt, it has been the nootropic that works best for me. Gives me alertness (but no jitteriness, I just feel awake and normal – kills all drowsiness), focus, and a tiny mood elevation. I’m surprised I don’t see more people talking about it…[18]

Conclusion

Phenylpiracetam’s seemingly wide array of effects and benefits makes it well worth looking into. Most notably, phenylpiracetam seems to provide many of the benefits of piracetam, while seemingly being more potent or effective in certain areas. Phenylpiracetam seems to noticeably provide cognitive capacity improvement, mood elevation, and stimulation. Experiences will vary widely among individual users, so we would highly recommend you try phenylpiracetam for yourself to see how it works for you.

You can buy Phenylpiracetam in powder form as well as in capsules at NootropicsDepot.

Phenylpiracetam
8
Focus
8
Mood
7
Memory
9
Stimulation
6
Relaxation
8.5
Safety
Reviewer 9

References   [ + ]

Categories
Memantine Noopept Nootropics Phenylpiracetam Piracetam Pramiracetam

Best Nootropics for ADD & ADHD: 10 Alternatives to Adderall®

WARNING: The substances mentioned in this article are not approved by the FDA, we only list them for information purposes. They should NOT, and I repeat NOT, be used as replacements for a true and tested ADHD treatment. Our website and all the websites listed in this article are not responsible for errors, omissions, or for any outcomes related to the use of the contents of this article.

Attention Deficit Disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD, ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in children between 6 and 12 years of age. It is especially problematic for those attending school, as it adds an extra barrier that both students and teachers must overcome. There are various popular forms of medication in the amphetamine class used to treat these attention disorders. These medications are typically quite effective in alleviating attention deficits, but they carry with them the possibility of addiction and dependence.[1]

Attention Deficit Disorders

Two of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents are Adderall (amphetamine/dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate).[2] Many people seek alternatives to classical stimulants because they know of potential adverse effects or want to avoid using potent phenethylamine derivatives on their own children or themselves. For this reason, we will investigate the potential benefits of nootropics in the treatment of attention disorders.

The most common nootropics that people use as alternatives to amphetamines are racetam drugs, modafinil and noopept. These nootropics have been demonstrated to have positive effects on cognition, but it is necessary to personalize treatment for each individual, evaluating if the course of treatment is actually working for them. It should be noted that the onset and duration of action of nootropics (as well as their effectiveness) can vary greatly. It would be wise to keep a journal where you take notes about the dosage and administration of nootropics you are using. Many nootropic drugs can take more than a week to establish their full effect, and dosages may need to be adjusted to achieve maximum effect.

Not all nootropics will ultimately be beneficial to those who suffer from attention deficits. However, many nootropics are well-known for their ability to improve cognition, motivation, and concentration.[3] Always consult your doctor before making adjustments to medication. Because most cognitive supplements and nootropics are stable and safe to use indefinitely, individuals who fear health risks or addiction to amphetamines may want to consider using nootropics as an alternative form of treatment.

Top 10 Nootropics for ADD & ADHD

These are the best nootropics for Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity, according to scientific studies and our anecdotal experience. As we frequently say in the nootropics community, your mileage may vary.

Piracetam

piracetam nootropic adhdPiracetam is considered by many to be the father of all nootropic drugs. It has a history of being used to treat dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease and other cognitive diseases that come with old age. Most research conducted on piracetam has come to the consensus that it does not have much effect on individuals who are not experiencing cognitive decline. For this reason, piracetam does not seem like an ideal alternative treatment for attention deficits. However, piracetam is extremely safe to take, and supplementation by anyone will help prevent cognitive decline before it even starts. Thus, it might be worthwhile to take piracetam alongside another medication on this list. One small study mentions a combination of atomoxetine (an ADHD medication) and Piracetam.[4][5]

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Noopept

Noopept11Noopept is a favorite among nootropic users due to its ability to improve cognition and increase the ability to focus. Although it is not technically a racetam, due to the fact that it does not contain a pyrrolidone nucleus, it is still quite similar in structure and effects. Noopept is commonly touted as having an effective dose 1000 times smaller than that or piracetam.[6] There is not very much information out there about noopept as a treatment for ADD, but experts at the Second International Congress on ADHD noted that noopept may be a very good alternative medication for attention deficits.[7] Many anecdotal reports from users have found that noopept is helpful for maintaining focus and concentration for extended periods of time.

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Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam nootropic for adhdPhenylpiracetam is a derivative of piracetam that has an additional phenyl group. It is noticeably more stimulating than piracetam, as well as more potent. An 800 mg dose of piracetam is comparable to about 100 mg of phenylpiracetam. It has been found to be effective at improving cognition and produces stimulation that may translate to improved focus.[8][9] One drawback of phenylpiracetam is that it cannot be used indefinitely, as tolerance develops relatively quickly. However, this might make it useful to cycle with another nootropic compound, or to use a few times a week alongside something else like noopept.

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Pramiracetam

pramistar-nootropic-pramiracetamPramiracetam is another derivative of piracetam. It is not as well researched as some of the more popular racetams, but it has a lot of potential as a cognitive enhancer. While there is no research that specifically addresses the issue of attention in the traditional sense, pramiracetam demonstrated and ability to help reverse scopolamine-induced attention deficits in humans[10], and anecdotal experiences on the web show that it’s effective in young subjects with ADD, but not in those with normal “baseline” performance. Even though pramiracetam still needs to see more research before anything definitive can be said, the fact that it is considered safe to use opens up the possibility of personal experimentation.

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Memantine

Memantine NootropicMemantine is another drug commonly used to treat cognitive decline, such as moderate and severe Alzheimer’s Disease. Memantine works on the glutamatergic system as an antagonist to NMDA receptors, which works to combat excitotoxicity. One of the benefits of Memantine is that it avoid the development of tolerance to a number of substances, including stimulants, caffeine, cannabis, alcohol and so on. It is therefore frequently combined with stimulants to reduce their neurotoxic effects as well as reducing tolerance to the positive effects of Adderall and Ritalin. Some research has been done on memantine’s possible effectiveness in treating ADHD (by itself, not in combination). One study found that memantine was fairly beneficial for alleviating symptoms of ADHD, but concluded that there is not enough evidence to draw any real conclusions.[11] Because of this, memantine could be a good choice to use in low doses alongside another substance on this. It must be noted that memantine acts as a dissociative at supratherapeutic doses, so proceed with caution.

3.5 out of 5 stars



Modafinil

provigil-modafinilModafinil is a wakefulness-promoting (eugeroic) drug that is classified in many places as a prescription medication. Armodafinil, a closely related drug, consists of only the active (−)-(R)-enantiomer of modafinil, meaning it is theoretically more potent. Because of this, both drugs work in a similar fashion. Modafinil has shown a good amount of promise as an alternative treatment of ADD/ADHD. One study conducted on children found that 48% of the participants felt a significant improvement in attentive skills while on modafinil.[12] Multiple other studies have found that modafinil provides moderate increases in cognition, memory, and motivation.[13] Although modafinil’s mechanism works through modulation of dopamine, it does not seem to carry an addiction potential to the same degree as amphetamines.

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Selegiline

selegiline adhd nootropicSelegiline (L-deprenyl) is a substituted phenethylamine drug commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and dementia. It has also seen some use as an alternative treatment for depression. There has not been a significant amount of research done on its efficacy in treating ADHD, but one study done on a small group of 28 children with ADHD studied the treatment effects of selegiline in comparison to methylphenidate. The children treated with selegiline displayed fewer symptoms of ADHD than those treated with methylphenidate while also displaying fewer side effects.[14] This research is preliminary, but it demonstrates the selegiline displays promise as an ADHD treatment.

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Supplements

These supplements are not strong enough to treat ADD/ADHD on their own, but they can potentiate and work synergistically with the nootropic drugs mentioned above.

Choline

acetylcholineCholine is an essential nutrient and precursor to acetylcholine that can be obtained in various ways in different foods. However, the easiest way to consume ideal amounts of choline is through a supplement. CDP-Choline and Alpha GPC are generally considered to be the two most effective sources of choline for nootropic use. Because racetam drugs and noopept work through modulation of acetylcholine, taking them alongside a choline source can make them more effective.

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L-Tyrosine

L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that acts as a precursor to the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and dopamine. One study found that supplementation of both Tyrosine and 5-HTP (a serotonin precursor) helped improve ADHD symptoms in 77% of the participants.[15] Taking these supplements can help improve attention deficits by increasing levels of neurotransmitters that play a significant role in attention. Tyrosine should be taken on an empty stomach to prevent it from competing for absorption with other amino acids found in food.

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Uridine

uridineUridine is a nucleotide base that has been found to improve memory, attentiveness, cognition, and learning.[16] The majority of uridine’s cognitive benefits appear to occur with its supplementation alongside other nootropics, such as racetams and noopept. It is considered a safe substance to combine with other nootropics and medications. Although uridine can be found naturally in liver, fish, and beer, it is most commonly supplemented through a uridine compound like uridine monophosphate or triacetyluridine.

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Conclusion

There are many nootropics, pharmaceuticals, and supplements that show significant promise for treating attention deficits. These substances are definitely worth looking into for those who are wary of amphetamines and the side effects and addictive potential they entail. In the end, the efficacy of each of these substances will vary between each individual and cautious experimentation will maximize the potential of finding an effective treatment regimen.

References   [ + ]

1. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)?
2. Methylphenidate
3. Gouliaev, A. H., & Senning, A. (1994). Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics. Brain Research Reviews, 19(2), 180–222.
4. Zavadenko, N. N., & Suvorinova, N. I. (2008). [Atomoxetine and piracetam in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children]. Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia I Meditsinskoi Promyshlennosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii, Vserossiiskoe Obshchestvo Nevrologov [i] Vserossiiskoe Obshchestvo Psikhiatrov, 108(7), 43–47.
5. Baumgaertel, a. (1999). Alternative and controversial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(5), 977–992.
6. [The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept].
7. Thome, J., & Reddy, D. P. (2009). The current status of research into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on ADHD: From Childhood to Adult Disease. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 1(2), 165–74.
8. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.
9. Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil.
10. Pramiracetam effects on scopolamine-induced amnesia in healthy volunteers.
11. Memantine: a review of possible uses in child and adolescent psychiatry.
12. Efficacy and safety of modafinil film-coated tablets in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study.
13. Examine.com Modafinil
14. Selegiline in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial
15. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with monoamine amino acid precursors and organic cation transporter assay interpretation
16. Cognitex supplementation in elderly adults with memory complaints: an uncontrolled open label trial.