Fasoracetam Nootropics Racetams Reviews

Fasoracetam: How This Nootropic May Help You Focus Better

Originally known as NS-105, Fasoracetam is one of the newest nootropics on the market. Besides being the latest racetam to be discovered, it has some unique properties unlike any other racetam on the market. Let’s find out what makes this substance a truly unique nootropic, and why you should (or should not) try it.

One of the primary effects of Fasoracetam is the modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors II and III (mGluR).[1] mGlu receptors have been shown to be involved in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. In addition, LY354740, am mGlu2/3 agonist, has been shown to be effective in generalized anxiety disorder.[2]

Fasoracetam is also the only racetam that significantly enhances cAMP formation[3] and that has been shown to be potentially effective in individuals with glutamatergic gene variants that are suffering from ADHD[4]. A Phase III clinical trial is near completion, but the drug is not currently listed as an ADHD treatment by the FDA.

Fasoracetam has also shown to have antidepressant effects[5] and to counteract learned helplessness, an avoidance behavior typically associated with depression. Fasoracetam, however, does not act on serotonin and other monoamines, and researchers think the antidepressant effect may stem from its ability to upregulate GABA-B receptors.[6]

Generally speaking, Fasoracetam has shown to be more effective with chronic use, and, in the ADHD study, most benefits were felt at week five onward.[7]
Fasoracetam ADHD

Mechanism of Action

In rat studies, fasoracetam restores the function of key receptors, glutamate mGluR II and III[8].  It also upregulates GABA-B receptors through receptor antagonism[9], a fact which may be related to its ability to reverse phenibut tolerance (which is one of the few supplements reported to relieve anhedonic depression). The GABA-B receptor is very important and has been found to play a role in cognition[10], anxiety and mood.

Alcohol, a very disinhibiting and fog-inducing compound (with pleasurable effects similar to phenibut) is thought to achieve its activity by activating GABA-B and A receptors (as well as dopamine).  However, because it downregulates these receptors, prolonged use may cause anxiety and cognitive disruptions.  Phenibut binds in a similar fashion to GABA-B.

FasoracetamBecause of its relatively narrow range of receptor targets, fasoracetam does not feel like a classic stimulant nor does it alter one’s feeling of wakefulness.  It lacks clinical dopamine activity but remarkably still managed to address ADHD symptoms, according to the study.  It is not clear how fasoracetam has such a specific utility in treating ADHD, more research on other neurotransmitters may be turned up in coming years, but judging on present evidence, it seems that Fasoracetam could reduce ADHD symptoms by modulating glutamatergic receptors.

That being said, the FDA does not list Fasoracetam as an ADHD medication and it should not be used as such. Only a professional can prescribe medications for ADHD and you should not self medicate.

Although it is a newer supplement without much of a user-base, it does appear to be well-tolerated even in large doses or extended periods. Among college students, it may soon become a mainstay, alongside other trusted nootropics such as Bacopa, Modafinil, and Noopept.


In addition to the findings surrounding glutamate and ADHD, rat studies have also revealed fasoracetam to have profound cholinergic activity.  Many common nootropics work by controlling acetylcholine, including several drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s.

It increases the uptake of choline at sites in key brain regions involved in intelligence and mood, the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.  This, in turn, results in increased production and release of acetylcholine.[11]
This, similarly to what has been commonly reported with piracetam, may explain a need for choline supplementation in the case of symptoms such as low mood, headache or brain-fog.

Although I personally have only ever tried piracetam and aniracetam (and found, despite a slight cognitive boost, that they both caused a slightly lowered mood, with piracetam being more stimulating and anxiety-prone while aniracetam was calm and relaxing), I haven’t read any complaints of fasoracetam and depression (on the contrary it appears to be a robust antidepressant nootropic, similar to tianeptine). This is remarkable because excessive acetylcholine production is typically associated with low mood and depression. Even with something as mild as bacopa, reports of moodiness are easy to pin down.

Since all three of the mentioned racetams seem to operate through a shared mechanism of acetylcholine, it’s not clear how fasoracetam achieves a similar cognitive boost without side effects on mood.  Perhaps it has been less trialed and as more users sample it, more negative reports will pour in.  This seems unlikely, however, given multiple reports of antidepressant effects, and at higher doses, near euphoria.

Fasoracetam and coluracetam are interesting racetams with multiple mechanisms of action compared to piracetam. Although they both share a cholinergic effect, the former modulates mGlu receptors (as well as GABA-B receptors) while the latter interacts with a process named high-affinity choline uptake.  This may explain their calm, clear effects when compared with the more bland effects of piracetam.


Of the eight known metabotropic glutamate receptors, only one and five are believed to increase NMDA receptor activity and neural excitation (these two are postsynaptic).  The other six receptors all function to lower NMDA (and are presynaptic), lessen excitation and thus reduce potential neurotoxicity.

By slightly lowering glutamate activity and at the same time boosting GABA-B levels, fasoracetam offers a collected state of mind compared to piracetam’s more scattered one.  Normal tasks would flow much easier, and performance would be improved without adverse effect.
While OCD and more recently schizophrenia have been described as hyperglutamatergic, ADHD has always been thought of as a condition of low glutamate.[12]

However, fasoracetam may very well regulate the metabotropic receptors in both directions and benefit everyone equally (restoring both high and low activity of the receptors to normal).

It is not clear how to explain the remarkable improvements reported in samples of both schizophrenia and ADHD. An explanation may be the selectiveness for the presynaptic mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) coupled with the fact that these receptors both elevate cAMP and lower NMDA activity. Levels of these receptors in the body are both altered in schizophrenia (so fasoracetam would produce two favorable alterations for the schizophrenic patient).

Despite all this fine talk about schizophrenia and glutamate, most of the reports surrounding fasoracetam are concerned with ADHD symptoms, specifically motivation and focus.  It is not widely known for its use as psychiatric medicine, and it may be considered by ADHD patients who have not responded well to conventional treatments. Again, it is not approved by the FDA as an ADHD treatment, and we are not suggesting people suffering from that disease to use it without a medical prescription.


As stated above fasoracetam appears to have GABA-B antagonistic properties[13], and it may upregulate these receptors and thus diminish the tolerance to GABA-B agonists like Phenibut, Baclofen, and Alcohol, and may even act as an “antidote” to a Phenibut overdose.

Before many of the newer designer supplements hit the market and much was known about fasoracetam, Noopept was one of the more recommended supplements for alcoholics to recover cognitive capacities. But in light of this newer evidence, fasoracetam may address the issue more directly. Because of its activity here, fasoracetam may eventually find use in treating age-related memory decline, dementia, and even depression. For now, the research and hype seem to surround the potential treatment of ADHD symptoms.

Dosage and half-life

Buy Fasoracetam CapsulesNo dependence potential was noted in the rhesus monkey over the course of four weeks.[14]  However. users cannot be completely absolved of concern, due to interspecies differences and the possibility of an only mildly addictive substance requiring an exceptionally long habituation period.

If its use is not completely discouraged in elderly patients, significant caution and close monitoring are recommended.  Its metabolism and clearance depend heavily on the kidneys and at least one studied has reported significant accumulation in the elderly (whose renal function is typically compromised).[15]

It is typically taken at 10mg twice daily, but it is probably best to start with 5 mg and taper up. Even though the dosage is very low, bitterness is still a problem and the use of capsules or parachuting is recommended.

Although some work their way up to 30 mg in one dose, this may not be the most effective strategy (due to a short half-life of the compound) and this pattern of use is more likely to be helped along by a large meal.  A potent nootropic with a half-life of around 90 minutes, taking it even once a day may be enough for active levels to build up in your system, but tolerance will be close behind.

You can buy Fasoracetam capsules and powder at Nootropics Depot. Fasoracetam is not approved by the FDA as an ADHD treatment.

Reviewer 8.8

References   [ + ]

Nootropics Tianeptine

Tianeptine: A Nootropic Antidepressant?

Tianeptine is an antidepressant, neuroprotective, and anxiolytic drug developed by French researchers Antoine Deslandes and Michael Spedding in the 1980s. It is currently marketed under the trade names Stablon and Coaxil in some European, Asian, and South American countries.

In the United States, Tianeptine is not FDA approved, mainly due to a lack of interest in the drug within the American pharmaceutical sphere. Although it is typically used in a clinical setting to treat depression and related illnesses, it has recently gained favor among nootropic users for its mood and cognition-boosting capabilities. It remains an unscheduled substance in the US, and can be purchased online via several nootropic vendors.

How it Works

Relation to Other Antidepressants

Chemical structure of TianeptineIn strict terms of chemical structure, Tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and is structurally similar to many prescription TCAs, such as amitriptyline and doxepin. However, Tianeptine’s mechanism of action varies drastically from classical TCAs

Most TCAs work as serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), increasing the levels of extracellular serotonin and norepinephrine. Tianeptine, however, has been found to enhance the reuptake of serotonin, which would consequently decrease serotonin levels in subjects. In addition, Tianeptine does not possess affinity for most neurotransmitter receptors, meaning it has little to no direct impact on norepinephrine and dopamine.[1]

These findings have led some researchers to question what is known as the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which has prevailed in medical circles for around half a century. Monoamines are a group of neurotransmitters that includes dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, the three of which are linked to motivation and mood. The monoamine hypothesis of depression posits that depression is caused by a shortage of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain.

Most classical antidepressants, (SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOIs, etc.) seek to restore balance to monoamine levels in the brain, thus alleviating symptoms of depression.[2] The fact that Tianeptine has little effect on monoamine levels, yet still alleviates symptoms of depression, has fortified the evidence that depression is much more complex than just an imbalance of monoamine neurotransmitters.

Mechanism of Action

So, then, how exactly does Tianeptine mitigate the symptoms of depression? Some researchers have hypothesized that depression is directly linked to lowered neuroplasticity (the ability of the brain to adapt to new stimuli) and that an increase in neuroplasticity in the human brain will contribute to reducing symptoms of depression. Studies conducted on Tianeptine’s action certainly support this idea.

Essentially, Tianeptine modulates the action of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Stressful situations tend to augment glutamate’s pathways, either causing too much or too little activity. These fluctuations in glutamatergic action lead to degradation of nerve and brain tissue. [3]


By keeping glutamatergic pathways under control, Tianeptine inhibits the body’s harmful responses to stress. This leads to increased neuroplasticity, which allows the brain to handle anxiety and depression more readily. The benefits of neuroplasticity also extend into the domain of nootropics by having a positive impact on cognition and working memory.[4] Tianeptine’s positive effects on neuroplasticity suggest that it may treat one of the root cause of severe depression rather than simply treat its symptoms. This would imply that Tianeptine has lasting effects on depression and cognition, even when it is no longer administered.

It was recently discovered in 2014 that Tianeptine works as a µ-opioid receptor agonist, which is believed to contribute to its anxiolytic properties. This could also be linked to the possible euphoric effects of Tianeptine that some users experience at higher (recreational) doses. Although Tianeptine acts on µ-opioid receptors, it does not have the high addictive potential that is associated with many opioid drugs.[5] That said, it is still a good idea to avoid taking Tianeptine for long periods of time without interruptions and/or at higher doses than those used in clinical practice.

Positive Effects of Tianeptine

  • Boosting mood and alleviating depression. [6]
  • Reducing anxiety and vulnerability to panic attacks. [7]
  • Improving overall brain health as a neuroprotectant.[8]
  • Enhancing cognition, memory, attention, and reaction time. [9]

Dosage Information

tianeptine stablon nootropicPrescription Tianeptine (Stablon) comes packaged in 12.5 mg tablets, which is considered a single dose. Tianeptine sold by nootropics vendors come in powder form, so doses should be measured out with a milligram scale to ensure accuracy.

Because Tianeptine has a relatively short duration of action (about 3-4 hours), three of these doses are taken throughout the day, waiting 3-4 hours between each dose. Tianeptine is administered orally, and there is no evidence that would warrant any other route of administration.

Recently some nootropic vendors have started selling tianeptine sulfate, which, according to them, is longer lasting compared to the regular sodium salt. There doesn’t seem to be any scientific evidence for this statement, however.

Side Effects, Tolerance, and Toxicity

Tianeptine has a similar side effect profile to more traditional antidepressants but does not cause the sexual dysfunction associated with SSRIs. It also does not exhibit anticholinergic effects that are common with TCAs. The most common side effects include nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, headache, and dizziness. However, all of these possible effects only occur in less than 1% of users.

Because Tianeptine is not monoaminergic in its mechanism of action, it is not considered a risk to take it alongside monoaminergic antidepressants. However, it should not be taken with MAOIs to avoid the risk of hypertension and seizures.

Tianeptine is considered safe to take indefinitely, although tolerance can develop over an extended period of use. If you find it necessary to take higher and higher doses to achieve any positive effects, it would be wise to taper off of the substance and take a tolerance break if you still want to use Tianeptine.

Although discontinuation symptoms of Tianeptine are not nearly as severe as with SSRIs and TCAs, it is still not recommended to suddenly stop usage. In addition, Tianeptine can be cycled with other antidepressant nootropics (like selegiline, NSI-189, or moclobemide) to stop tolerance from developing.

The LD50 of Tianeptine is estimated to be 980 mg/kg, so there is a very low chance of consuming a lethal or harmful dose on accident.


Tianeptine stands out among other antidepressants because of its novel modes of action. Rather than temporarily modifying a monoamine imbalance, it aids the brain in healing itself by increasing neuroplasticity.

It is unfortunate that its use has mostly been ignored by the American medical community, but its unscheduled status has opened up opportunities for nootropic usage. Because of its effects on mood, cognition, stress, and neuroplasticity, Tianeptine should definitely be considered by serious users of nootropics.

Reviewer 8.9
I highly recommend Tianeptine to anyone who's looking for an antidepressant that does not impair cognition.

References   [ + ]

Cognitive Health Memantine Nootropics Recovery

Can Nootropics Help With Drug Abuse and Addiction?

In recent years, evidence has compiled suggesting a common pathologic mechanism underlying addictive behaviours of several substances. Dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NA) appears to predispose to a higher tendency towards drug-seeking behaviour.

Thus far, this mechanism has been associated with the addiction potential of cocaine, heroin, nicotine, cannabis, & alcohol, with possible implications for other substances and even non-drug-related compulsive habits such as pathological gambling. Discovery of this shared pathology has led to the investigation of the potential application of existing agents, such as Memantine and n-acetylcysteine.

Could nootropics targeting elements in this key glutamatergic circuit reduce symptoms and complications of substance use disorders?

Glutamate Spillover

«Glutamate spillover» refers to the pathologic cascade in brain chemistry that occurs with chronic abuse of certain substances that results in reinforcement of the behaviour[1].

McClure EA, Gipson CD, Malcolm RJ, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. Potential role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders. CNS Drugs. 2014 02;28(2):95-106.

Prolonged exposure to substances of abuse leads to several maladaptive changes in the glutamatergic PFC-NA pathway, specifically:

  • Downregulation of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT1) expression in the nucleus accumbens. By removing glutamate from the extrasynaptic space, GLT1 prevents inappropriate excitatory stimulation due to an accumulation of the excitatory neurotransmitter.
  • Decreased ability of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to inhibit glutamate release. In normal physiology, mGluR2 autoreceptors manage a feedback loop where increased extracellular glutamate levels trigger a reduction in the presynaptic release of glutamate. This auto-regulatory mechanism also serves to prevent an extracellular accumulation of glutamate.

When glutamate spillover within the non-synaptic extracellular space does occur as a result of the combination of these processes, the following sequelae are may manifest:

  • Stimulation of postsynaptic mGluR5, AMPA and NMDA receptors.
  • Upregulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors (increased synaptic plasticity).
  • Stimulation of extrasynaptic glutamate receptors may also occur.

Increased excitatory tone due to these two processes culminates in impaired inhibition with regard to drug-seeking behaviour as well as increased risk of relapse. Furthermore, persistently elevated glutamatergic tone may lead to neurotoxicity secondary to excessive Ca2+ ion influx. This pathology has also been associated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease.


n-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cysteine precursor that has a long history of use for indications ranging from bronchopulmonary disorders to paracetamol overdose. It produces many beneficial effects through a variety of mechanisms ranging from supporting antioxidant processes to suppressing over-reactive immune responses to inhibiting apoptosis. NAC’s glutamatergic modulation, however, is of key interest in managing substance use disorders[2].

Brown RM, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. The story of glutamate in drug addiction & of n-acetylcysteine as a potential pharmacotherapy. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 09;70(9):895-7.

NAC is converted to L-cysteine in vivo, which enhances the activity of the cysteine/glutamate exchange transporter positioned near the pre-synaptic terminal. This increases the concentration of extracellular glutamate, resulting in increased tonic activation of pre-synaptic mGluR2 autoreceptors. This causes a subsequent decrease in glutamate release. NAC also increases expression of GLT1 and the cysteine/glutamate exchange transporter, promoting the removal of glutamate from the extrasynaptic space and ‹putting it back› in the pre-synaptic area. These effects in concert have been shown to mitigate the complications from glutamate spillover, & have been tested in several small trials with promising results.

  • When administered in patients with a history of cocaine addiction, NAC was shown to decrease self-reported cocaine use within the 28 days of treatment (mean 8.1 days out of 28 days before treatment & 1.1 days during treatment, p = 0.001)[3], desire to use cocaine (F = 5.07; df = 1,13; p = 0.05), & response to cocaine cues (F = 4.79, df = 1,13, p = 0.05)[4]. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study confirmed elevated glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of cocaine users when compared against non-users (t(7) = 3.08, p = 0.02), and also showed a reduction 1 hour after a single 2.4 g dose of NAC[5].
  • With regard to cannabis, 2.4 g/day NAC decreased craving in one 4-week open label study of 24 patients[6]; in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects given 2.4 g/day NAC in addition to counselling were 2.4 times more likely to test negative on urinalysis (95%CI 1.1 to 5.2) but there was no difference in number of reported days of cannabis use[7].

The dosage for managing consequences of substance use disorders in trials ranged from 1.2 to 2.4 g by mouth daily. Benefits on neurochemistry may occur with single doses although significant alterations in behaviour may take days to weeks. The pharmacodynamic effect also depends upon the history of substance use and individual predisposition to addictive behaviour.

NAC is significantly protein-bound (80%). It is metabolised in the liver via non-CYP450 pathways. NAC and its metabolites are primarily eliminated in the urine, with a half-life of 5.6 hours in adults[8].

NAC is generally well-tolerated. Nausea, vomiting, rash, and fever have been reported.


Memantine (Namenda®) is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist most commonly used in the management of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to its glutamatergic modulation, memantine also acts as an agonist at the D2 and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR). Memantine binds and inhibits NMDA receptors with low-to-moderate affinity, most effectively in states of excess glutamatergic activity (such as in substance use disorder). By blocking NMDA receptors, memantine decreases glutamatergic tone[9].

Clapp P, Bhave SV, Hoffman PL. How adaptation of the brain to alcohol leads to dependence: a pharmacological perspective. Alcohol Res Health. 2008;31(4):310-39.
Neurochemical effects of alcohol intoxication in various contexts.

Upregulation of NMDA receptors has been observed with chronic alcohol consumption. Abrupt discontinuation of alcohol removes GABAergic suppression, resulting in the characteristic acute sequelae of alcohol withdrawal (symptoms of excitotoxicity): seizures, hallucinations, tachycardia, and shock. By inhibiting these receptors, memantine may theoretically attenuate symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.

  • In one RCT of 18 moderate alcohol drinkers (10-30 drinks/week), 30 mg/day memantine significantly decreased alcohol craving before alcohol consumption in comparison to 15 mg/day and placebo[10]. Another placebo-controlled RCT with 10-40 mg/day showed no difference[11].
  • A subsequent study of 38 patients utilising 20-40 mg/day memantine showed dose-dependent reductions in cue-induced craving[12].
  • In another RCT of 127 male patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal, administration of 10 mg memantine three times a day decreased apparent withdrawal symptom severity, dysphoria, and need for diazepam[13].
  • Administration of 60 mg significantly alleviated subjectively-rated symptoms of naloxone-induced opioid withdrawal in 8 heroin-dependent patients[14].
  • In a study of 67 heroin-dependent subjects, 10-30 mg/day memantine significantly reduced heroin craving, depression, and state & trait anxiety compared to placebo after 3 weeks of use. A separate treatment arm using amitriptyline 75 mg/day achieved similar results but with a higher incidence of side effects and a higher dropout rate[15].
  • Clinical data on application in cocaine[16],[17] and nicotine abuse[18] is less promising.

The dosage for mitigating substance use disorders in trials ranged from 5 to 60 mg, with 30 mg by mouth once daily showing the best effects for alcohol abuse and 30 to 60 mg by mouth once daily shown to be most effective in limited trials for opioid dependence. Safety is best characterised at doses up to 30 mg, as this dosage is used in Alzheimer’s disease. Memantine is typically initiated at 5 mg daily then titrated by 5 mg per week up to the goal dose (30 to 60 mg depending upon the indication).

Memantine undergoes favourable non-hepatic metabolism; its metabolites are minimally active. Individuals with a history of kidney disease should consult a doctor or pharmacist before use, as memantine undergoes significant renal elimination (74% is excreted in the urine). The half-life of memantine ranges from 60-80 hours.

The most common side effects noted at therapeutic doses higher than 7 mg/day are dizziness, headache, confusion, anxiety; increased blood pressure; cough; & constipation[19].


  • Disrupted regulation of glutamatergic pathways in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbent pathway has been implicated as an underlying pathology among several substance use disorders, including cocaine, alcohol, and opioid dependence.
  • Therapies such as n-acetylcysteine (NAC) and memantine have demonstrated efficacy in attenuating the symptoms of some of these disorders in small trials.

References   [ + ]

1. McClure EA, Gipson CD, Malcolm RJ, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. Potential role of n-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders. CNS Drugs. 2014 02;28(2):95-106.
2. Brown RM, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. The story of glutamate in drug addiction & of n-acetylcysteine as a potential pharmacotherapy. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 09;70(9):895-7.
3. Mardikian PN, LaRowe SD, Hedden S, Kalivas PW, Malcolm RJ. An open-label trial of n-acetylcysteine for the treatment of cocaine dependence: a pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:389-94.
4. LaRowe SD, Myrick H, Hedden S, Mardikian P, Saladin M, McRae A, et al. Is cocaine desire reduced by n-acetylcysteine? Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1115-7.
5. Schmaal L, Veltman DJ, Nederveen A,van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE. n-acetylcysteine normalizes glutamate levels in cocaine- dependent patients: a randomized crossover magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2143-52.
6. Gray KM, Watson NL, Carpenter MJ, LaRowe SD. n-acetylcysteine (NAC) in young marijuana users: an open-label pilot study. Am J Addict. 2010;19:187-9.
7. Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, DeSantis SM, Kryway E, Hartwell KJ, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of n-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:805-12.
8. Medscape® 5.1.2, (electronic version). Reuters Health Information, New York, New York.
9. Zdanys K, Tampi RR. A systematic review of off-label uses of memantine for psychiatric disorders. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 8/1;32(6):1362-74.
10. Bisaga A, Evans SM. Acute effects of memantine in combination with alcohol in moderate drinkers. Psychopharmacology 2004;172:16–24.
11. Evans SM, Levin FR, Brooks DJ, Garawi F. A pilot double-blind treatment trial of memantine for alcohol dependence. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 2007;31(5):775–82.
12. Krupitsky EM, Neznanova O, Masalov D, Burakov AM, Didenko T, Romanova T, et al. Effect of memantine on cue-induced alcohol craving in recovering alcohol-dependent patients. Am J Psychiatry 2007a;164(3):519–23.
13. Krupitsky EM, Rudenko AA, Burakov AM, Slavina TY, Grinenko AA, Pittman B, et al. Antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification: comparison with placebo & diazepam. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 2007b;31(4):604–11.
14. Bisaga A, Comer SD, Ward AS, Popik P, Kleber HD, Fischman MW. The NMDA antagonist memantine attenuates the expression of opioid physical dependence in humans. Psychopharmacology 2001(157):1–10.
15. Krupitsky EM, Masalov DV, Burakov AM, Didenko TY, Romanova TN, Bespalov AY, et al. A pilot study of memantine effects on protracted withdrawal (syndrome of anhedonia) in heroin addicts. Addict Disord Treat 2002;1(4):143–6.
16. Collins ED, Vosburg SK, Ward AS, Haney M, Foltin RW. Memantine increases cardiovascular but not behavioral effects of cocaine in methadone-maintained humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2006;83(1):47–55.
17. Collins ED, Ward AS, McDowell DM, Foltin RW, Fischman MW. The effects of memantine on the subjective, reinforcing, & cardiovascular effects of cocaine in humans. Behav Pharmacol 1998;9(7):587–98.
18. Thuerauf N, Lunkenheimer J, Lunkenheimer B, Sperling W, Bleich S, Schlabeck M, et al. Memantine fails to facilitate partial cigarette deprivation in smokers—no role of memantine in the treatment of nicotine dependency? J Neural Transm 2007;114:351–7.
19. Micromedex® 1.0 (Healthcare Series), (electronic version). Truven Health Analytics, Greenwood Village, Colorado, U.S.A. Available at:

The Neurological Benefits of Sarcosine and D-Serine

Sarcosine and D-Serine are two endogenous substances that are currently being researched for a number of conditions. Although these substances have many interesting properties and may be effective add-on treatments to disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, they are too nonspecific to work effectively as a standalone, and should never be used in place of a doctor’s recommendation. That being said, there is some promising evidence for a nootropic, antidepressant and antipsychotic effect.

D-serine vs L-serine

This article includes references from studies using both enantiomers of serine. The two may have somewhat similar effects since L-serine is converted to D-serine by serine racemase, an enzyme that requires vitamin B6 to function. It is thus important to supplement vitamin B6 when supplementing L-serine.

Studies involving both forms of serine clearly demonstrate its interesting scope of effect. That being said, L-serine may be less effective since it requires an extra step before it can be used by the body.

L- and D-Serine

Mood and Depression

D-serine produces both acute[1] and chronic[2] antidepressant effects in animal models. Chronic use was also reported to lower markers of anxiety. Studies have also shown that it may prevent cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to stressful situations[3] (like a job interview) but not in normal day-to-day situations. D-serine, therefore, does not strictly meet the definition of a nootropic. It is, however, ubiquitous in the body, and with many interesting effects in promoting cerebral health, certainly a worthy supplement.

Sarcosine was the star of a landmark 2013 study, which underpinned a role of the Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) in depression[4]. The antidepressant effect of sarcosine and other GlyT1 inhibitors may be related to the increased levels of glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter that seems to have an anti-stress effect. The study found sarcosine monotherapy to be superior to the SSRI citalopram (Celexa) in remitting depression, with rapid onset of action and few side-effects.[5] The role of glycine in mental disorder may be much larger than originally thought.

As expected, users have reported varying levels of effectiveness from sarcosine as an antidepressant, with some drawing a comparison between ketamine or citalopram, while others have not noticed a significant effect. The research has suggested a strong general effect, which may still nevertheless depend on the individual.

Schizophrenia and Psychosis

The glutamate system is the largest excitatory system in the brain and it commands functions across every region, so one would expect sarcosine to be useful in depression, memory loss, or interestingly, psychotic disorders. The glycine transporter’s influence over NMDA receptors (which are essential for memory and learning) may also explain why sarcosine makes a useful adjunctive therapy to antipsychotics. It’s all to do with the involvement of NMDA and glutamate in schizophrenia:

… the hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. […] Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia..

Because of the diverse actions of the glycine transporter and its involvement in other neurotransmitter systems, sarcosine has also been found to modulate striatal dopamine release. This may help further explain its antipsychotic properties.

SchizophreniaWhile it may not be terribly effective on its own, used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals, sarcosine can deliver a real knockout blow[6], conveniently complimenting pharmaceuticals in treating both negative and positive symptoms. This is particularly remarkable because most pharmaceuticals were developed to address only positive symptoms; there has been a race to find more effective treatments for the negative symptoms, which have often come in the form of over-the-counter supplements, exercise programs, and specific diets.

Sarcosine and N-acetylcysteine were both found to restore glutamate activity in mGluR5 knockout mice[7] Low activity of this receptor may be related to schizophrenia. Interestingly, positive allosteric modulators of mGluR5 may have nootropic properties. [8]

Sarcosine is known to have potential in Parkinson’s[9] and other dopamine dysfunction disorders, such as ADHD.[10] Sarcosine and its metabolite glycine modulate dopamine in the striatum[11], which includes the hippocampus.

Another study[12] has confirmed as helpful the addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy, concluding it increases survival of neurons and glial cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a key structure damaged by aging and drug abuse, it is involved in executive functions, such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, inhibition, and abstract reasoning). Sarcosine may soon become a popular supplement in the psychiatric industry.


Even though they are far from being popular nootropic supplements, D-Serine and Sarcosine are two fascinating compounds.

If you are being medicated for schizophrenia or depression, you should definitely consider supplementing one of these two compounds to augment your psychiatric medication. Sarcosine, in particular, is very inexpensive and has a lot of evidence backing up its use. [13] [14]

Nootropic users who have tried Sarcosine report improvements in focus, motivation[15] and visual acuity[16], and there is some evidence that it may help those living with ADHD.[17]

References   [ + ]

1. Acute D-serine treatment produces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. (2012)
2. Effects of Chronic D-Serine Elevation on Animal Models of Depression and Anxiety-Related Behavior. (2013)
3. D-serine prevents cognitive deficits induced by acute stress. (2014)
4. Inhibition of glycine transporter-I as a novel mechanism for the treatment of depression. (2013)
5. Inhibition of glycine transporter-I as a novel mechanism for the treatment of depression. (2013)
6. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. (2015)
7. The glutamatergic compounds sarcosine and N-acetylcysteine ameliorate prepulse inhibition deficits in metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor knockout mice. (2010)
8. mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators facilitate both hippocampal LTP and LTD and enhance spatial learning (2009)
9. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glycine site temporally ameliorates neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson’s disease with dementia. (2014)
10, 17. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. (2016)
11. Modulation of striatal dopamine release by glycine transport inhibitors. (2005)
12. Glycine transporter inhibitor sarcosine changes neuronal and glial parameters in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and glutamatergic parameters in the left hippocampus in stable schizophrenia (2016)
13. Sarcosine or D-serine add-on treatment for acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (2005)
14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison study of sarcosine (N-methylglycine) and D-serine add-on treatment for schizophrenia. (2010)
15. Sarcosine – The Model NMDA-Receptor Co-Agonist – Brain Health – LONGECITY
16. Sarcosine – The Model NMDA-Receptor Co-Agonist – Brain Health – LONGECITY