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Bacopa Nootropics

Bacopa Monnieri: The Most Impressive Natural Nootropic

Bacopa monnieri, commonly referred to as Bacopa, it’s a plant that has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine. In India, it is also referred to as Brahmi. In the last two decades, many Ayurvedic plants, like Ashwagandha, Brahmi, and Gotu Kola, have been shown to be effective not only in Ayurveda classic books but also in scientific studies; the extract, in particular, has been shown to be as effective as some prescription medications.

Background and Benefits

Perhaps more than other top nootropics, Bacopa highlights the importance of the individual and the makeup of his biology on any given day. Although it reliably promotes enhanced memory and vivid dreaming, other effects are less consistent, often due to the large variety in potency between the different products on the market. Luckily, in the last few years, a standardized and pharmaceutical grade extract has been developed, named Bacognize®.

Bacopa Ayurvedic Medicine BenefitsIt is known to produce clarity or a slight fog, making you relaxed or slightly moody, with the potentiality of leading to mild physical symptoms (like muscle aches and intestinal bloating). In spite of all this critical talk, Bacopa is one of the most underestimated supplements, and this article will paint it as one with profound healing and nootropic abilities. Confused? Don’t worry; we got you covered!

Some of the benefits of Bacopa (according to both scientific research and anecdotal experiences) are:

  • It is neuroprotective[1] and significantly improves acquisition and retention of memories.[2]
  • It also increases acetylcholine synthesis and promotes neurogenesis by enhancing the activity of BDNF and NGF[3]
  • It has anxiolytic[4], antidepressant[5] and anti-stress effects.[6]
  • It is an antioxidant and increases lifespan in animal studies.[7]
  • It is anti-inflammatory[8] and cardioprotective.[9]
  • Bacopa may also help people with epilepsy[10], as well as children with ADHD.[11]

The sedative effect of Bacopa is almost always in the foreground, though anecdotal reports show that this effect happens most strongly at the beginning and tends to disappear after a month (or two) of consistent use. In fact, studies have shown that Bacopa’s peak nootropic effect is seen after two months[12], and keeps on getting stronger as time passes, while the anxiolytic effects are usually felt right from the first dose.

Anecdotal Reports

Before we get into the specifics of Bacopa, let’s have a look at some of the anecdotal experiences in the nootropics community to get a better understanding of how it works in healthy individuals outside the lab.

From Reddit user Nedzilla55

[…] My first nootropic experience, and it was a good one. I noticed acute effects of lowered anxiety, and over the course of a few months noticed increased memory. This amazing herb is subtle enough that I feel normal, but noticeable enough that I felt less stress and anxiety. I didn’t even realize how great it was until I got off of it, and started experiencing my usual increased anxiety. It wasn’t like an acute “Wow, I feel so calm” feeling, more like a background calm. Like turning down the volume of anxiety a couple of notches. Looking back at it, the 6-7 months I used it I was in a much better place mentally. […]

From Reddit user YoungRedPiller —

So I’ve been taking Bacopa Monnieri for about a month at this point. […] I’ll try to explain my experience with it so far.
I’ve heard that the memory effects take at least 8 weeks to show effect but I’ve been feeling some quite significant changes in my ability to recall events that have happened in the past month. It’s also improved the quality of these memories. This is a very nice effect that is very appreciated because I feel if i stick it out for another month my memory will improve noticeably.
One other effect that it’s had that I didn’t really expect it to have was that it made me completely apathetic. To everything. Studying, reading, music, doing anything at all. I’m completely careless to everything and my motivation to do things is very little. But when I start doing things, I don’t want to stop. It’s had a profound effect on my attention. I don’t know if the attention is because of the apathy or something but attention is another aspect that I like about Bacopa. Also due to the apathy, my anxiety is also very minimal in any situation. I completely have a fuck it attitude. Very appreciated as I used to be quite hyperactive.
It’s made me very calm, serene and genuinely carefree. […]

From Reddit user Tester12311

The first month: Contrary to anecdotal reports, I could definitely feel the bacopa kicking in. It acted almost as a mild downer and a definite anxiolytic. I felt calm, chilled out, and careless. […] Many initial reports include drowsiness and upset stomach. Though Bacopa did make me drowsy at first, I can only think of very specific instances with stomach upset which could easily have been as a result of what I ate that day. Besides these mild effects, there was not much else for Bacopa within the first month.
The second month and now: Throughout this entire period of taking Bacopa, I would constantly test my memory to see if it was improving. […] To be completely honest, it is very difficult to measure how much I can and cannot remember. But I can say that when people ask me if I remember something they said the week previous, I am more likely to respond positively. I am also more lucid with conversation topics as I can tie together the flow of a conversation from one topic to another. One can assume that my immediate working memory has greatly improved. […] Bacopa’s anxiolytics effects have also had a nice influence on my life. I am less nervous about social interactions especially with women or job interviews. It has gotten to the point where I really just do not care what people I don’t know think of me. […]
One of the most gratifying and prominent effects that I feel from Bacopa is the attention boost. I have a have a very strong grip on whatever I am doing. It has made reading and studying easier. I can sit and become enamored by a book. I hated reading before Bacopa. I love it now. […]

Learning and Memory

Bacopa Extract PowderBacopa is perhaps most notable for its ability to enhance memory and cognitive performance in mice.[13] In humans, this translates most clearly to improved consolidation of memories into long-term memory.[14] In these respects, bacopa has received a comparable amount of attention (in academic journals) as more mainstream and publicized herbal cognitive enhancers, such as ginkgo.

Later sections will expound on neurotransmitters, serotonin and acetylcholine in particular, which have, respectively anti-stress and pro-cognitive effects. Like other herbal nootropics, its mechanism also relies on adaptogenic properties or lowering stress (this is touched on below, from the perspective of “cytokines,” the body’s natural inflammatory agents).

While not as pronounced as the effect on long-term memory, Bacopa may also be useful for short-term memory, concentration, focus, motivation, and the likes. Clinical studies have found it effective against ADHD[15]. Another study has drawn the same conclusions[16]. This is especially encouraging for those who want to stay away from Adderall, Ritalin, and other pharmaceutical choices, and into other choices which may be more sustainable and less taxing on the psyche.

Inflammation

Inflammation, like oxidation, is too often presented in the press, and almost never in a light which sheds true insight on its value; gradually the public loses interest in the hype and falls into more conservative waters. Despite any skepticism, bacopa has real and impressive anti-inflammatory properties[17]. These anti-inflammatory properties are closely related to its anti-dementia effects, which are as potent as curcumin, and like curcumin may open the avenues in Alzheimer’s research for more potent semi-synthetic derivatives.

Cytokines are compounds which the body releases in response to stress or infection, and although they help to control certain illness, they can quickly lead to runaway inflammation. Many herbal nootropics work in part by regulating this runaway, negative feedback “loop.” Although it is perhaps not as strong as curcumin, there are a few studies and books summarizing bacopa’s effects on inflammation.

Epilepsy

It has been shown in multiple studies to be as effective as common antiepileptic meds. This is likely related to its effect as a modulator of GABA[18], although a direct modulation of glutamate cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor.[19]

Oxidative Stress

The anti-stress effect may be directly related to the antioxidant capacity, as suggested by evidence[20]. Although antioxidants are beaten to death in the media, it is important in the absence of rigorous ORAC testing (free radical savaging capacity) to recognize when a particular food or supplement shows promising activity[21]. Ginkgo, bacopa, turmeric and ginger all show potential here. You can look up the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ratings for turmeric and ginger to get a rough idea of their potency.

Serotonin and BDNF

Besides its broad antioxidant properties, perhaps the most studied mechanisms of Bacopa have been centered on serotonin[22][23]. It has been shown to upregulate the serotonin transporter (SERT) and to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an animal model of depression[24]. The magnitude of the BDNF effect is supported by studies investigating bacopa’s ability to substantially improve the growth and survival of dendrites and axons: the fragile, spindly structures allowing for communication between neurons.

Dopamine and glutamate

Although bacopa is known to restore dopamine function[25], and as mentioned above, glutamate function as well, it is still not clear the extent to which these factors play into its nootropic qualities. The acetylcholine, serotonin, antioxidant and (as we will touch on later) the cardiovascular properties all likely outshine dopamine and glutamate in this respect.

Physical Health

Bacopa Monnieri has been implicated in increasing specifically cerebral blood flow independent of overall blood pressure[26] it can also decrease blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) independent of heart rate[27] by releasing nitric oxide — a molecule that helps cells communicate with each other — from the endothelium.

Bacopa is also cardioprotective, and in research has been showed to protect from several cardiotoxic substances, such as isoprotenerol.[28] and may likely have a protective effect for everyday cardiotoxic activities like smoking. drinking, and taking stimulants.

Although it has primarily been studied on opiate (morphine) related kidney damage (where it was found to be effective[29]), it may serve in the otherwise healthy as a general tonifying agent in the kidneys.

Contraindications

Due to its cholinergic activity, those with a known mood disorder should approach bacopa extremely cautiously. High acetylcholine levels have even been used in lab mice to simulate bipolar and borderline features[30].

Bacopa has a potent stimulatory effect on the thyroids. Persons with known thyroid conditions are accordingly advised to consult a healthcare professional before considering bacopa.
As said before, it is known to accumulate heavy metals. Nowadays, most nootropic suppliers have certificates of analysis, and this is not raised as a concern.

Closing Remarks

Buy Bacognize capsulesAlthough bacopa’s initial sedative effect may be partially balanced out by natural energizers, such as ginseng, cocoa or royal jelly, we are recommending you consult a healthcare professional before beginning such an aggressive regimen. It is instead more strongly recommended to simply lower the dose, particularly when using the 50% extract which some people may find too intense.

By the way, you can buy Bacognize capsules and powder at Nootropics Depot. Or, if you’re on a tight budget, check out Powder City’s bulk 50% extract and 20% extract capsules. I personally recommend the capsules as the powder has an unpleasant taste. The dosage depends on the type of extract you have, typically a 50% extract like Bacognize is taken 300 mg once or twice a daily, while a 20% extract is taken at 500-650 mg two to three times a day. It is typically taken with food.

The good news is that much of bacopa’s nootropic effect is cumulative. Although it does take up to four to six months to see full effects, modest effects can still be observed from switching to the lower dose after a mere two months. This is especially true when it is paired off in the long-term with other highly effective and synergistic supplements. You could even take it just one summer, completely remove it from your stack after that point, and still theoretically retain some of its nootropic qualities.

Bacopa Monnieri
6.5
Focus
7.5
Mood
8.5
Memory
5
Stimulation
9
Relaxation
9
Safety
Reviewer 8

References   [ + ]

1. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monniera extract against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat brain (2006)
2, 14. Chronic Effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on Human Memory (2002)
3. Bacopa monnieri and L-deprenyl differentially enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and nerve growth factor via ERK 1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the spleen of female wistar rats. (2013)
4. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: An experimental study. (1998)
5. Antidepressant-like effects of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera in mice (2015)
6. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
7. Bacopa monnieri promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans under stress conditions (2015)
8. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
9, 28. Cardioprotective Effect of Bacopa monneira Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Necrosis in Rats (1997)
10, 19. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract. (2008)
11, 15. An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. (2014)
12. Effects of a Standardized Bacopa monnieri Extract on Cognitive Performance, Anxiety, and Depression in the Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (2008)
13. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice (2004)
16. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol. (2015)
17. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
18. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A. (2012)
20. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
21. Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. (2015)
22, 23. Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation. (2011)
24. Chronic Administration of Bacopa Monniera Increases BDNF Protein and mRNA Expressions: A Study in Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Animal Model of Depression (2014)
25. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats. (2013)
26. Bacopa monnieri increases cerebral blood flow in rat independent of blood pressure. (2013)
27. Bacopa monnieri and its constituents is hypotensive in anaesthetized rats and vasodilator in various artery types. (2011)
29. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity (2016)
30. Modeling bipolar disorder in mice by increasing acetylcholine or dopamine: chronic lithium treats most, but not all features. (2015)
Categories
Health

Is Berberine the New Resveratrol?

There are very few supplements that have a list of potential benefits as impressive as berberine. Despite the fact that berberine is not all that well known compared to many other supplements, it is extremely well researched. While not all of these benefits are guaranteed to occur for every single user, berberine has been found to

  1. Reduce inflammation
  2. Improve gastrointestinal health
  3. Reduce glucose production in the liver
  4. Improve markers of insulin resistance
  5. Lower cholesterol
  6. Lower oxidative stress
  7. Help in losing body fat
  8. Slow down aging
  9. Suppress chemical-induced carcinogenesis, clastogenesis, tumor promotion and tumor invasion
  10. Exert antiarrhythmic effects
  11. Exert anti-microbial activity against a wide range of microorganisms.
  12. Exert minor antidepressant effects, as well as work in a synergistic fashion with existing antidepressants

While this list of touted benefits is certainly impressive, berberine also carries with it a number medication interactions, which must be noted with caution (more on this later).

What is Berberine?

goldenseal
Goldenseal

Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid and ammonium salt of a bright yellow color that is found in and extracted from a variety of plants from the genus berberis, as well as Coptis chinensisPhellodendron amurense, and Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal) and many others. These plants have a history of being used in both traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda as an anti-microbial agent. Berberine appears to be effective in fighting bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. [1] However, these traditional uses of berberine barely scratch the surface of its full capability.

When berberine is ingested orally, it has a relatively low bioavailability of 5% or less. [2] Berberine increases the action of P-Glycoprotein, a substance which actually makes berberine more difficult for the intestines to absorb. Because of this, taking a P-Glycoprotein inhibitor (such as Milk Thistle) can possibly make smaller doses of berberine more effective.[3] Another option is to take Berberine with Coconut oil that contains a fatty acid known as Sodium Caprate which significantly increases the absorption and the efficacy of Berberine.[4][5]

AMPK Modulation

One of berberine’s main mechanisms of action is its ability to activate an enzyme called Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK). AMPK is crucial for maintaining energy homeostasis in cells. It is responsible for regulating glucose and other nutrients by sensing their concentrations within cells. [6] The activation of AMPK caused by berberine has multiple different effects. First, the AMPK activation causes an increased uptake of glucose into adipocytes (fat cells). This is one of the major methods through which berberine reduces glucose levels in the blood.[7] In fact, berberine’s antidiabetic effect is so effective that it is regarded as one of the few supplements to be as strong as a pharmaceutical drug. When taken correctly, berberine can be as effective (or even more effective[8] as the popular type II diabetes drug metformin.[9]

Molecular structure of BerberineBerberine also appears to have various positive effects on the heart and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Activated AMPK located in liver cells causes an inhibition of cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis.[10] This change is also linked to a lowering of low-density lipoproteins (“bad” cholesterol) and raising of high-density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol). Additionally, berberine can lower the levels of LDL by stimulating the synthesis of LDL receptors, which are responsible for removing LDL from the blood.[11] The activation of AMPK induced by berberine also appears to inhibit the synthesis of lipids and lower triglyceride levels, which is useful for individuals who are attempting to lose weight.[12]

In one study, reperfusion (oxidative stress) was induced in rats who had been pre-treated with berberine. The rats treated with berberine displayed significantly less heart damage than those who had not been treated.[13] One study conducted on 24 overweight or obese subjects concluded that berberine was able to reduce blood pressure significantly more than placebo. [14] These effects of berberine—the inhibition of LDL cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis, increase in HDL cholesterol, decrease in lipid production, protection from oxidative stress, and the decrease in blood pressure—all work together to contribute to berberine’s overall positive effect on heart health and weight loss. But that’s not all…

Anti-aging & Anti-cancer

There is some early research evidence that seems to suggest berberine’s efficacy as telomerase inhibitor.[15] Telomerase is a protein that is intricately linked with cell proliferation and the life cycle of cells. Telomeres (the region that telomerase acts upon) are a portion of DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that keep them from deteriorating.

Essentially, the inhibition of telomerase by berberine has potential applications in the area of life extension & longevity as well as a chemopreventive supplement or in conjunction with existing cancer treatments to increase their efficacy.[16]

fight cancerBesides telomerase inhibition, berberine has also been found to suppress the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells[17][18], including breast cancer,[19] leukemia[20], melanoma,[21] epidermoid carcinoma, hepatoma[22], pancreatic cancer[23], oral carcinoma, tongue carcinoma[24], glioblastoma, neuroblastoma[25], prostate[26][27][28] and gastric carcinoma.

Mental Health

Berberine also exhibits minor to moderate antidepressant effects. One study conducted on mice discovered that berberine administration reduced the immobility time of mice in a swim test, which is indicative of antidepressant effects. The same study also concluded that berberine caused significant increases in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in the whole brain. It was also discovered that berberine works synergistically with certain antidepressant medications, such as fluoxetine, imipramine, tranylcypromine, and venlafaxine.[29]

New studies suggest berberine may have a potential for inhibition and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease through inhibition of β-amyloids pathways and cholinesterase[30] and through antioxidant capacities. Berberine derivatives are currently being developed as potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors.[31]

As a PCOS treatment

In a 2012 human study[32], 89 Chinese women of reproductive age who met the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance, were recruited and prescribed the anti-androgen compound cyproterone acetate (2.0 mg/day) in a combined oral contraceptive pill with 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol, taken in a cyclic fashion. They also received advice from a nutritionist to limit dietary fat and carbohydrates without restricting calories.

They were then assigned to one out of three treatment groups:

  1. Berberine hydrochloride, 500 mg 3 times/day (n=31)
  2. Metformin, 500 mg 2 times/day for the first week, then 3 times/day for the remainder of the study (n=30)
  3. Placebo tablet 2 times/day (n=28)

Results of the study were:[33]

  • After 3 months, all the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in body weight and BMI.
  • Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were reduced in all 3 groups. However, the berberine group showed a significantly greater reduction in these measures.
  • All 3 treatment groups showed a significant reduction in fasting insulin. However, in the placebo group, fasting plasma glucose and fasting glucose/insulin ratio remained unchanged.
  • Fasting plasma glucose decreased and fasting glucose/insulin ratio increased in the berberine and metformin groups. There was no significant difference between them.
  • The berberine and metformin groups showed comparable changes in total testosterone and free androgen index, which were significantly greater than placebo. However, sex hormone–binding globulin increased significantly in the berberine group when compared with both metformin and placebo.
  • All 3 groups had reductions in total cholesterol and triglycerides. The berberine group had a significantly greater decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL (“bad” cholesterol”), and a significantly greater increase in HDL (“good” cholesterol) when compared to metformin.
  • Adverse effects were minimal and fewer compared to metformin. Nine subjects who received metformin complained of transient abdominal discomfort including nausea, vomiting, mild diarrhea, and flatulence, while 3 who received berberine complained of a bitter taste in the mouth.

As a result of this study, the researchers conclude that berberine may prove a viable alternative to metformin in optimizing the health outcomes of women with PCOS.
Another study[34] on 102 anovulatory Chinese women was published in 2015 found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.

Side Effects & Interactions

Berberine is absorbed slowly by the intestine, meaning that high doses can cause diarrhea and cramping. For this reason, berberine is typically taken in various smaller doses throughout the day.

In terms of interactions, the most noteworthy is the potential interaction with macrolide antibiotics like azithromycin (Zithromax) and clarithromycin (Biaxin). The interaction between the two has the possibility of causing cardiotoxicity. Berberine also inhibits enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 which has the potential to affect how many other drugs are metabolized by the body.[35] For this reason, it is very important to discuss berberine supplementation with a healthcare professional to ensure no dangerous interactions will take place.

Goldenseal vs Berberine Hcl

berberine supplement
Berberine hydrochloride powder

The two most common ways to supplement Berberine are to take either Berberine hydrochloride (hcl) or Goldenseal root powder. This is extremely important and I’ll explain why.

Goldenseal, – which contains a number of other compounds besides berberine – has been shown to cause DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms[36] as well as promote liver cancer in rats.[37]

Therefore, I strongly advise against using goldenseal root and to take Berberine Hcl instead, the same way it was used in the PCOS studies. If you’re taking goldenseal supplements, stop taking them as soon as possible!

Conclusion

Berberine is certainly unique among supplements in the fact that it is equally as effective as some prescription medications. It also boasts a myriad of benefits that impact a variety of systems throughout the body. This article has only scratched the surface of the researched benefits of berberine. A collation of the large body of evidence concerning berberine can be found here for anyone who wants to learn more about this fascinating supplement. While there are some potential side effects and medication interactions, berberine is still well worth checking out. Berberine stands as a hidden gem among supplements – one that has the potential to greatly improve one’s quality of life.

Berberine Hcl can be bought relatively cheap at PowderCity and other supplement and vitamins shop.

References   [ + ]

1. Berberine at Examine.com
2. Bioavailability study of berberine and the enhancing effects of TPGS on intestinal absorption in rats.
3. Effect of berberine on the pharmacokinetics of substrates of CYP3A and P-gp.
4. Sodium caprate augments the hypoglycemic effect of berberine via AMPK in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis (2012)
5. Enhancement of Sodium Caprate on Intestine Absorption and Antidiabetic Action of Berberine (2010)
6. Effect of AMPK activation on muscle glucose metabolism in conscious rats.
7. Berberine inhibits PTP1B activity and mimics insulin action.
8. Berberine Compared to Metformin in Women with PCOS | Natural Medicine Journal
9, 35. Berberine at Examine.com
10. Inhibition of lipid synthesis through activation of AMP kinase: an additional mechanism for the hypolipidemic effects of berberine.
11. Berberine inhibits dyslipidemia in C57BL/6 mice with lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation.
12. Inhibition of lipid synthesis through activation of AMP kinase: an additional mechanism for the hypolipidemic effects of berberine
13. Berberine attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulation of adenosine-5′-monophosphate kinase activity in both non-ischemic and ischemic areas of the rat heart.
14. Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion.
15. Human telomeric G-quadruplex: the current status of telomeric G-quadruplexes as therapeutic targets in human cancer.
16. Human telomeric G-quadruplex: the current status of telomeric G-quadruplexes as therapeutic targets in human cancer.
17. A systematic review of the anticancer properties of berberine, a natural product from Chinese herbs (2009)
18. Berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma as novel antineoplastic agents: a review of traditional use and biomedical investigations (2009)
19. The alkaloid Berberine inhibits the growth of Anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest (2009)
20. Down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of Wee1 by berberine promotes entry of leukemia cells into the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle (2006)
21. Different concentrations of berberine result in distinct cellular localization patterns and cell cycle effects in a melanoma cell line (2008)
22. Coptis chinensis inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene activation (2009)
23. Berberine Inhibits Cell Growth and Mediates Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells (2010)
24. Berberine induced apoptosis via promoting the expression of caspase-8, -9 and -3, apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G in SCC-4 human tongue squamous carcinoma cancer cells (2009)
25. Berberine inhibits human neuroblastoma cell growth through induction of p53-dependent apoptosis (2008)
26. Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells (2006)
27. Butanol fraction containing berberine or related compound from nexrutine inhibits NFκB signaling and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells (2009)
28. Berberine inhibits p53-dependent cell growth through induction of apoptosis of prostate cancer cells (2009)
29. On the mechanism of antidepressant-like action of berberine chloride.
30. Conformation-activity studies on the interaction of berberine with acetylcholinesterase: Physical chemistry approach (2009)
31. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of berberine derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (2009)
32, 33. Effect of berberine on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized multicenter controlled trial
34. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
36. Genotoxicity of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
37. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of goldenseal root powder (Hydrastis Canadensis) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice