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DMAE Nootropics Picamilon Vinpocetine

The 5 Most Overrated Nootropics

The world of nootropics is one that focuses mainly on the cognitive enhancement of individuals who are seeking to maximize their potential. However, this also means that nootropics are a commercial enterprise, with vendors and salespeople seeking to maximize their profits. Due to the commercial nature of nootropics, and the fact that many are not FDA regulated, many suppliers make exaggerated or overemphasized claims about the benefits of their products.

Quite simply, there are many well-known “nootropic” substances that either don’t work as well as advertised or don’t work at all. The placebo effect may also plays a massive role in this, as many nootropics have not been thoroughly tested in double-blind experiments to ensure they work more effectively than a placebo. For this reason, anecdotal experience reports with nootropics are important, but many people tend to give them too much weight. In order to combat misinformation (and save you some money), we will be listing a few overrated and under effective nootropics and supplements on the market today.
 

DMAE

Dimethylaminoethanol, frequently known as DMAE and Deanol, is a chemical involved in a series of reactions needed by the body to synthesize Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that regulates memory and mood.

DMAE Deaner advertisement nootropic
DMAE advertisement from the late 50s

The p-acetamidobenzoate salt of DMAE was originally sold by Riker Laboratories as Deaner, for the management of kids with learning disabilities. It is not known whether that form of DMAE was more effective than the bitartrate salt that is more commonly sold as a nootropic supplement.

Riker retired Deaner from the shelves in 1984 because, — according to the FDA — the clinical studies didn’t prove that the drug was effective. As of today DMAE is still sold as a nootropic supplement, but it’s more frequently used as an active ingredient in anti-aging skin creams, due to its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

DMAE has always been a popular and widely used supplement in the nootropic community since the end 90s to early-2010s, however, it is no longer a popular nootropic supplement today for several reasons:

  • DMAE is not an effective Acetylcholine percursor[1] [2]
  • There is actually reason to believe that DMAE may act as an anticholinergic[3]
  • DMAE causes birth defects[4]
  • Some nootropic users report depression and physical anxiety as a side effect of DMAE[5]
  • DMAE reduced lifespan in a study on quails[6]

Try instead: Centrophenoxine, CDP-Choline, Alpha GPC
 

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a species of tree that has the reputation of being used in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo extract is used as a mild vasodilator, and can be commonly found at almost any supermarket sold in capsule form. Its wide availability makes it a very popular supplement, especially for those who are just getting introduced to nootropics or supplementation. Ginkgo has often been touted for its alleged abilities to enhance cognition, mood, and memory.

In the 1990s, Ginkgo was heavily marketed by the supplement industry as a natural compound that enhances memory and energy. The majority of clinical studies have found ginkgo supplementation to be relatively ineffective in people who don’t already suffer from some form of cognitive deficit. While studies have confirmed that ginkgo can help counteract cognitive decline, these studies were only conducted on older individuals (65+) who were already in the process of cognitive decline.[7] So while ginkgo might be a good option for older individuals, there is no evidence to suggest it will have an effect on the cognitive health of younger individuals.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOsehMqrb1E

However, recent studies have brought into question ginkgo’s ability to slow or prevent things like mild dementia and Alzheimer’s in the elderly. One clinical trial conducted with 3,000 elderly individuals found that ginkgo is no more effective at preventing these diseases than placebo.[8]

Another one of ginkgo’s most commonly claimed benefits is that of improving mood and sense of wellbeing. However, multiple studies have confirmed that ginkgo only has the ability to slightly improve mood among individuals who are effected with a pre-existing cognitive condition, and not among healthy individuals.[9] [10] [11]

So, while Ginkgo Biloba may be worth a try in older individuals who are already experiencing cognitive decline, most evidence suggests that younger individuals have little to no reason for supplementing ginkgo to achieve cognitive enhancement.

Try instead: Bacopa or Noopept
 

Picamilon

Picamilon is a pharmaceutical drug developed in the Soviet Union that is now used in Russia for the treatment of anxiety, among other disorders. Picamilon was recently in the news when the FDA decided that the drug did not fit into the category of dietary ingredients and subsequently banned picamilon from being included in any supplement formulas manufactured in the United States.[12] That being said, it is still fairly available online to those in the US who wish to purchase it.

Picamilon, Niacin and Gaba comparisonThe picamilon molecule is a synthetic combination of niacin and GABA. On its own, supplemented GABA cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier, meaning it will have no psychoactive anxiolytic effect. However, niacin is able to readily pass through the blood-brain barrier.[13] In theory, the picamilon molecule could cross over the blood-brain barrier, at which point it would be metabolized into GABA and niacin, thus producing an anxiolytic effect. Like phenibut, this anxiolytic effect has the potentially to improve the cognition of those whose minds are constantly preoccupied with anxious thoughts.

Picamilon Russian Nootropic
Russian Picamilon

This theory sounds promising and reasonable on paper, but there is, unfortunately, little to no evidence that it is accurate. While one Russian study concluded that picamilon did indeed cross over the blood-brain barrier, the details of its action once it crosses over have not been thoroughly analyzed.[14] Essentially all clinical experiments concerning picamilon are reported in Russian, making them inaccessible to the vast majority of the scientific community. This makes any evidence supporting picamilon dubious at best. At this point, there are no double-blind studies that test how picamilon works as an anxiolytic.

While it can’t necessarily be ruled out that picamilon has any positive effects on cognition and anxiety, there is not much evidence to believe it would. At this point, there is simply not enough research done on the substance to conclude that it is worth investing in.

Try instead: L-Theanine, Tianeptine, Phenibut
 

Vinpocetine

Vinpocetine is a classic nootropic compound often claimed to have memory-enhancing effects as well as the ability to improve brain metabolism. Vinpocetine is a semisynthetic analog of vincamine, an alkaloid derived from the periwinkle plant. It is still sold in some Eastern European countries as Cavinton for treating blood flow disorders in the brain, as well as cognitive decline caused by old age.

Vinpocetine and Vincamine comparison

Like many other drugs on this list, Vinpocetine appears to have positive effects on cognition only among people who are already experiencing age-related cognitive decline or brain injury.

  • One study found that vinpocetine was able to improve symptoms related to cognitive decline in elderly or injured patients who were suffering from cerebrovascular insufficiency.[15]
  • However, there are currently no studies that suggest vinpocetine has similar effects on healthy subjects.

That said, there is evidence that vinpocetine may be able to improve reaction time among healthy subjects.

  • A study conducted on 12 female subjects between the ages of 18 and 29 found that vinpocetine caused their reaction time to reduce by a few hundred milliseconds, depending on the dosage used. So, while vinpocetine may help improve reaction time, there is no current evidence that it will enhance memory and cognition.
  • Vinpocetine may likely help in sports where reaction time is a deciding factor, but there is no evidence (clinical or anecdotal) that it helps with learning and studying.
  • Vinpocetine is known to causes headaches, so it is a good idea to start low and experiment with ease, before stacking it with other nootropics.

Try instead: Piracetam, PRL-8-53
 

Adrafinil

Adrafinil is a prodrug to the ever-popular wakefulness-promoting drug modafinil. Essentially, this means that adrafinil is metabolized into modafinil once it is ingested. Adrafinil was once used as a prescription medication in France for enhancing wakefulness and attention but was discontinued in favor of using modafinil, which is far more potent.

How Adrafinil gets converted to Modafinil in the liver

Due to the fact that modafinil is a “prescription only” drug in many countries, many nootropic users have turned to Adrafinil for its purported cognition-boosting and memory-enhancing effects. While there is some evidence to suggest that modafinil can provide a modest boost in cognition and working memory,[16] Adrafinil does not seem to exhibit these effects as strongly. In addition to this, Modafinil’s cognition-boosting effects appear to be most effective in individuals who are sleep deprived or impaired in some ways, and not those who are already high achievers.

Because Adrafinil is a prodrug to modafinil, one would expect the two to have the same effects when taken in the correct dosages. However, even when enough adrafinil is taken to be metabolized into a full dose of modafinil, the effects do not appear to be as strong. While it is unknown exactly why this is the case, it likely has to do with the rate at which adrafinil is metabolized, as well as the fact that metabolic enzymes mutations are commonly found in the general population.

Adrafinil also appears to exhibit more side-effects than modafinil, including skin irritation, anxiety and elevated liver enzymes.[17] The latter is likely due to the fact that adrafinil is metabolized in the liver, and thus puts extra stress on it, causing it to produce more enzymes.

While adrafinil may have some potential to enhance cognition and memory, its effects are not nearly as potent as modafinil, even when taken at the proper dose. If at all possible, it would make far more sense to take modafinil or armodafinil, which is the active enantiomer of the drug.

Try instead: Modafinil or Armodafinil
 

Conclusion

While nootropics and cognitive enhancers will have different effects on different individuals, there are certain substances and supplements that simply do not have evidence backing up their ability to enhance cognition. Because the nootropics industry is one driven by profits just like any other, users need to be skeptical of the claims made by vendors. Many nootropics on the market are overrated and under effective, but thankfully there are many alternatives that are backed by research. Nootropics are often not cheap, so purchases need to be made wisely.

References   [ + ]

1. Is 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) indeed a precursor of brain acetylcholine? A gas chromatographic evaluation. (1977)
2. Dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) metabolism in rat brain and its effect on acetylcholine synthesis. (1979)
3. Deanol and methylphenidate in minimal brain dysfunction. (1975)
4. Perturbations in choline metabolism cause neural tube defects in mouse embryos in vitro (2002)
5. DMAE sucks! – LONGECITY Forum
6. Effects of dimethylaminoethanol upon life-span and behavior of aged Japanese quail. (1977)
7. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
8. Ginkgo biloba for Prevention of Dementia
9. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers.
10. Phase II study of Ginkgo biloba in irradiated brain tumor patients: effect on cognitive function, quality of life, and mood.
11. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg.
12. FDA sends five warning letters over supplements containing picamilon
13. Effect of Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s diseases on the transport of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide across the human blood-brain barrier. (1991)
14. [Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals]
15. [Efficacy of cavinton in the treatment of patients with chronic blood flow insufficiency. Russian multicenter clinical-epidemiological program “CALIPSO”].
16. Modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo during 64 hours of sustained mental work. I. Effects on mood, fatigue, cognitive performance and body temperature.
17. Modafinil: past, present and future.
Categories
Nootropics

The 14 Best Nootropics for Anxiety

As we collect evidence provided to us by our ever-expanding group, we’ve come up with a few good remedies. Anxiolytic drugs are known to “relieve anxiety”.[1] Many of us suffer from anxiety ranging from slight to severe impairment. It is wise to note that some drugs, such as Bacopa, have enhanced efficacy after chronic administration.[2] Others, such as Tenoten, are applied sublingually and can be used to treat acute anxiety.[3] Any of the information here is not to be used or substituted for medical advice.

Bacopa

4 out of 5 stars
Bacopa monnieri nootropics for anxiety
Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most important herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been used for centuries as a mental tonic originating in India.

Bacopa has been shown in studies to relieve anxiety, improve cognition, and enhance memory formation.[4] [5] In a rat study, Bacopa increased the levels of serotonin and enhanced the gene expression of serotonin transporters[6]. Studies have shown a relationship between high levels of serotonin and positive mood.[7] [8]

Bacopa also appears to have an adaptogenic effect by reducing the biochemical effects of stress.[9]

To fully appreciate the positive effects of Bacopa, it needs to be taken consistently. Studies have shown more improvement as time passes. [10]

Ashwagandha

4 out of 5 stars

Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is a popular herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. In Sanskrit, Ashwagandha means “the smell of a horse”, because of its unmistakable smell. It is also believed to give vitality and the “strength of a stallion”.

Ashwagandha is believed to act as a neuroprotector, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, thyroid-booster, and libido enhancer.

Ashwagandha activates GABA-A receptors, the mechanism of action responsible for its anxiolytic and sleep-inducing effects.[11]

It has been shown to be as effective as fluoxetine for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a mice study.[12]

L-Theanine

3 out of 5 stars
Matcha
Matcha is a Japanese green tea with a very high Theanine content

L-Theanine is a natural amino acid contained in green tea. Most store-bought teas contain minimal amounts of L-Theanine, however, concentrations are greater in teas such as matcha, gyokuro, and kabusecha.

L-Theanine is structurally similar the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA.[13] L-Theanine is also a neuroprotective agent[14] which increases the amounts of serotonin, dopamine, and GABA in various areas of the brain.[15] It’s commonly used with stimulants, — like caffeine or amphetamines —, to reduce side effects, but it is also effective by itself.

Inositol

3 out of 5 stars

Inositol is a sugar involved in cellular signaling and as a component of cell membranes. There are nine different inositol molecules. The most abundant of these being myo-inositol.

Inositol was once considered a B vitamin (formerly Vitamin B8). It was later found to be producible by the human body, disproving it as an essential nutrient. It is naturally found in small quantities in milk products, fruits, and vegetables.

Research shows high dose Inositol supplementation (18 g) was as effective as fluvoxamine (150 mg) in decreasing the number of panic attacks[16] and reducing the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). [17]

Phenibut

5 out of 5 stars

Phenibut is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative.

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The mechanism of action of conventional anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol) increase GABA levels. This is what gives them anti-anxiety, sleep-inducing, tranquilizing, and anticonvulsive effects.

Phenibut was developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s as a non-sedative alternative to benzodiazepines. Phenibut is part of the Russian cosmonaut medical kit as a treatment for stress.

Phenibut activates GABA-B receptors[18] and boosts dopamine levels.[19]

Picamilon

2 out of 5 stars

Picamilon is another Russian nootropic made by combining niacin (vitamin B3) and GABA. This allows Picamilon to cross the blood–brain barrier[20] and have anxiolytic and vasodilating[21] effects.

It is used in Russia as a treatment for anxiety, depression[22], alcoholism[23], and brain damage.[24]

Aniracetam

3 out of 5 stars

Aniracetam (known as Ampamet in Europe) is a compound of Racetam family. It is a fat-soluble derivative of Piracetam.

Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors. AMPA is one of the main three excitatory neurotransmitters (the other two being NMDA and kainate receptors). Compounds that act on AMPA receptors are called AMPAkines.

AMPAkines are substances which exhibit neuroprotective and cognition enhancing effects[25]. Some of these have been investigated as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions[26]. Aniracetam is also a potential anxiolytic[27] and antidepressant.[28] Anecdotal evidence states that Aniracetam is effective in some individuals, while others are non-responders.

Coluracetam

4 out of 5 stars

Coluracetam is a relatively new Japanese nootropic drug with little clinical backing. Unlike Piracetam, Coluracetam directly affects High Affinity Choline Uptake.[29] It was shelved after failing to demonstrate efficacy for Alzheimer’s.

Phase IIa clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for comorbid MDD with GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder).

Anecdotal reports state Coluracetam is responsible for a sensation of “HD Vision” as well as lowered anxiety.

Fasoracetam

3 out of 5 stars
Fasoracetam, a novel nootropic
Fasoracetam, a potent and novel nootropic which shows promise to relieve anxiety, as well as reduce ADHD symptoms.

Fasoracetam, also referred to as NS-105, is a novel cognitive enhancer. Fasoracetam is a high-affinity choline reuptake inhibitor, similar to Coluracetam.[30] Many refer to this particular mechanism of action as “HD vision”.

Fasoracetam can act as a sustainable anxiolytic since long-term administration upregulates GABA-B receptors.[31] Anecdotal reports have noted both acute and chronic anxiolytic effects.

Treatment of ADHD, by NS-105, is mediated through modulation of mGluR glutamate receptors.[32] In other words, those suffering from ADHD and/or anxiety may benefit from Fasoracetam’s purported effects.

Tianeptine

5 out of 5 stars

Tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) developed in France circa 1960. Tianeptine embodies a unique mechanism of action, unlike other TCAs.

Tianeptine was originally believed to be a Serotonin Reuptake Enhancer. Recent research suggests its antidepressant effect is due to the activation of μ-opioid and δ-opioid receptors[33] as well as modulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors.[34]

Tianeptine efficacy is comparable to fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and imipramine (with significantly fewer side effects).[35]

Tenoten

2.5 out of 5 stars

Tenoten is a simultaneous nootropic and anxiolytic with novel properties. Unlike GABA agonists, Tenoten treats anxiety “based on antibodies to the brain-specific protein S-100B”.[36]

“Testing at the Russian Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics indicate Tenoten was as clinically effective as amitryptiline (Elavil), sertraline (Zoloft), and phenazepam (a benzodiazepine) for the reduction of anxiety but without sedation. It further recommended Tenoten for patients with moderate cognitive impairment”.[37]

“[Tenoten] demonstrated considerable improvement of the control over brain frontal compartment effector functions”.[38]

In a small trial group of 50 children, Tenoten showed efficacy for the treatment of ADHD symptoms.[39]

Selank

3.5 out of 5 stars

Selank, is an analog of the endogenous peptide tuftsin. Since tuftsin has innate immunomodulatory capabilities, Selank is also able to regulate T cell cytokines.[40] In this way, Selank can be seen as having immunomodulatory properties.

Unlike common anxiolytics, Selank does not cause sedation or cognitive impairment. It is non-habit forming and does not cause withdrawal symptoms.

Selank modulates monoamine transmitters[41] and catalyzes the metabolism of serotonin.[42] Selank causes rapid elevation of BDNF, solidifying its place as a cognitive enhancer.[43]

Although Selank’s mechanism of action is largely misunderstood, evidence suggests it lowers levels of tau(1/2) leu-enkephalin.[44]

Afobazole

3 out of 5 stars

Afobazole (also known by its scientific name Fabomotizole) is a Russian anxiolytic drug which does not possess sedative properties unlike most anxiolytics. Afobazole, similar to Fasoracetam, upregulates GABA receptors.[45] Afobazole restores GABA to healthy levels following ischemia.[46] This is widely regarded to be Afobazoles main anxiolytic mechanism of action.

Fabomotizole also induces BDNF and NGF release, agonizes MT3 receptors, and reversibly inhibits MAO-A [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]. Since Afobazole directly effects BDNF and NGF, it is also classified as a nootropic. Caution should be taken when combining Afobazole with other MAO inhibiting substances. Afobazole may also have an antidepressant effect.

Kava

4 out of 5 stars

Kava is a GABAergic drug which affects the GABA-A receptor in several ways. Kava exhibits reverse tolerance. It is a less-harmful alternative to common GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The alkaloids chiefly responsible for Kava’s mechanism of action are called kavalactones.[52] It is becoming apparent that although Kava is confirmed to modulate GABA-A receptors, it may do so in a different method than direct agonism.[53] It appears Kava potentiates GABA-A through poorly understood means.[54] GABA-A receptor density increased following administration of Kava, suggesting both upregulating and sensitizing properties.[55]

A common concern for Kava usage lies in its purported hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity of Kava is a direct result of the extract or plant matter obtained, suggesting quality is paramount to avoiding liver damage. “Risk factors included overdose, prolonged treatment, and comedication with synthetic drugs and dietary supplements”.[56] Indigenous tribes have been using Kava for centuries, with minimal consequences. One can assume toxicity is directly affected by the quality of the plant used.

Most, but not all, of clinical studies, have demonstrated Kava’s efficacy as an anxiolytic. Standardized extract demonstrated the highest efficacy versus placebo. 1 week of chronic administration may be necessary to feel its effects. Evidence suggests Kava may aid in the treatment of insomnia and sleeplessness.[57]

References   [ + ]

1. Definition of anxiolytic by Merriam-Webster
2, 10. Enhanced dendritic arborization of hippocampal CA3 neurons by Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats.
3. The use of tenoten and tenoten (pediatric formulation) as a drug for premedication in adults and children during outpatients dentist visit.
4. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.
5. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview.
6. Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation.
7. Associations between whole-blood serotonin and subjective mood in healthy male volunteers.
8. Serotonergic function in the central nervous system is associated with daily ratings of positive mood.
9. Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi).
11. Pharmacological effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex.
12. Influence of Withania somnifera on obsessive compulsive disorder in mice.
13, 14. Neuroprotective effects of theanine and its preventive effects on cognitive dysfunction
15. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent.
16. Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder.
17. Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
18. On neurotransmitter mechanisms of reinforcement and internal inhibition.
19. Phenibut (beta-phenyl-GABA): a tranquilizer and nootropic drug.
20. Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals.
21. The new cerebrovascular preparation pikamilon.
22. The results of clinical study of the drug Picamilon (analysis of data of neurologic and psychiatric clinics) – AP Huaichenko, RP Kruglikova-Lvova
23. Picamilon Application in Therapy of Patients with Alcoholism, – Novikov VE, Kovaleva LA
24. Picamilon Application in the Complex of Regenerative Therapy of Patients after Insultus
25. AMPA receptor potentiators for the treatment of CNS disorders.
26. Benzofurazan compounds which enhance AMPA receptor activity
27. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism.
28. Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action.
29. MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, ameliorates working memory deficits and decreased hippocampal acetylcholine induced by ethylcholine aziridinium ion in mice
30. Involvement of cholinergic and GABAergic systems in the reversal of memory disruption by NS-105, a cognition enhancer.
31. Effect of a novel cognition enhancer NS-105 on learned helplessness in rats: possible involvement of GABA(B) receptor up-regulation after repeated treatment.
32. A novel cognition enhancer NS-105 modulates adenylate cyclase activity through metabotropic glutamate receptors in primary neuronal culture.
33. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.
34. The neurobiological properties of Tianeptine (Stablon): from monoamine hypothesis to glutamatergic modulation
35. Tianeptine: a review of its use in depressive disorders.
36, 37, 38. Tenoten in the therapy of patients with moderate cognitive impairment.
39. Clinical efficacy of tenoten for children in treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder
40. Immunomodulatory effects of selank in patients with anxiety-asthenic disorders
41. Effects of heptapeptide selank on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in the brain of BALB/C and C57Bl/6 mice: a comparative study
42. Comparison of the effects of selank and tuftsin on the metabolism of serotonin in the brain of rats pretreated with PCPA
43. Intranasal administration of the peptide Selank regulates BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus in vivo.
44. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of action of a new peptide anxiolytic selank in the therapy of generalized anxiety disorders and neurasthenia
45, 46. Effects of afobazole on the content of neurotransmitter amino acids in the striatum in global transient ischemia.
47. Clinical study of the selective anxiolytic agent afobazol
48. Gabaergic mechanism of cerebrovascular and neuroprotective effects of afobazole and picamilon
49. Effects of afobazole on the BDNF content in brain structures of inbred mice with different phenotypes of emotional stress reaction
50. Selective anxiolytic afobazole increases the content of BDNF and NGF in cultured hippocampal HT-22 line neurons
51. Interaction of afobazole with sigma1-receptors
52, 57. Kava kava | University of Maryland Medical Center
53, 54, 55. Kavapyrone enriched extract from Piper methysticum as modulator of the GABA binding site in different regions of rat brain.
56. Kava hepatotoxicity–a clinical review.