Coluracetam Nootropics Racetams Reviews

Coluracetam Review: A Nootropic With Antidepressant Properties

The drug piracetam is often regarded as the first truly nootropic drug, due to its ability to promote healthy brain function and cognition without potentially debilitating side effects. The family of nootropics that are structurally related to piracetam, known as racetams, have also been held in high esteem by the nootropics community. Coluracetam is one of the many members of this nootropic drug class, but it has some unique properties that set it apart from the rest.


ColuracetamColuracetam is a fairly new addition to the racetam category of nootropics, being developed and initially researched in the mid-1990s.[1] Coluracetam, known also by its research names of MKC-231 and BCI-540, was initially developed and researched by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Coluracetam has also seen some limited research concerning its potential use for treating Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.[2]

Mechanism of Action

When ingested, coluracetam becomes present in nerve tissue within 30 minutes of administration. The concentration in the body begins to decrease about 3 hours after ingestion.[3]
The most definitive mechanism through which coluracetam works is high-affinity choline uptake (HACU). HACU is a crucial step in the process of the body’s converting of choline into acetylcholine, a vital neurotransmitter for cognition processes. [4] In essence, this means that an increase in HACU (caused by coluracetam) will also increase the activity level of acetylcholine in the nervous system. This is the basis for coluracetam’s ability to enhance cognition

My Experience with Coluracetam

My trial run for NootropicsDepot’s coluracetam lasted for one week, due to the fact that coluracetam’s effects seem to all take place rather quickly. In other words, the effects do not appear to be cumulative like some other nootropics. Typically, I took 30 mg orally in the morning, along with another 30 mg in the afternoon. If necessary, I took another dose later on in the day. Dosage recommendations for coluracetam range anywhere from 3 mg up to 100 mg or more, but this dose seemed to work just fine. Having experimented with coluracetam briefly a few months ago, I had a general feel for what dose might work.

Coluracetam powder nootropicDuring the time of this trial, I was not taking any prescription medications. In the morning, I was taking Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, potassium gluconate, fish oil, and turmeric. The effects I experienced from taking coluracetam have been very positive. However, bear in mind that this is only a subjective experience. The placebo effects cannot be ruled out (although I am convinced it was the coluracetam I felt), and experiences will vary between individuals. That being said, I will now go into what I felt are the major benefits of coluracetam:

  1. Motivation enhancement
    Right off the bat, coluracetam seems to provide a decent increase in motivation to engage in productive work. I felt a stronger desire to work on school work that I don’t find very interesting. It made it much easier to push through to get things done, leaving a very satisfactory feeling when things were accomplished.
  2. Stimulation
    This effect goes somewhat hand-in-hand with motivation enhancement. Coluracetam has the effect of making me feel more awake and alert. It seems to help me feel more ready and able to get work done. It didn’t make me feel “jittery” either – I felt quite relaxed the whole time.
  3. Reduction in fatigue
    Coluracetam appears to help alleviate both physical and mental fatigue. There were a few instances when taking it where I went from being exhausted and drained to energized and ready to go.
  4. Enhanced cognition
    This effect is very important for any nootropic compound. After all, it is the main thing that nootropics are purported to influence. Within half an hour of taking coluracetam, I felt much more able to formulate thoughts and translate them into writing. I also felt more able to connect ideas in my mind and get a better idea of the “bigger picture.” I also felt more naturally able to hold conversations with others, feeling much more engaged and fluent.
  5. Music enhancement
    While this is mostly unrelated to the topic of cognitive enhancement, listening to music while on coluracetam was very pleasant. The music itself felt more full, interwoven, and immersive than usual. Individual pieces of melody and minor details became more distinguishable than usual.
  6. Mood Boost
    After taking coluracetam, I can understand why it is being researched as a treatment for depression. It helped me remain more positive and upbeat throughout the day. I also seemed to make things more enjoyable in general.


Coluracetam seems to be a very promising nootropic in terms of its multiple benefits and few side-effects. I did not experience any apparent increase in tolerance during the week I was taking it, even with multiple doses in one day. Experiments in which rats were given coluracetam for 14 days at a time seems to reinforce this.[5] The only possible side-effect I experience was mild to moderate headaches, which occurred throughout the week. This should be taken with a grain of salt because I am normally fairly prone to headaches in the first place. I’ve also heard that taking choline can alleviate headaches that come with racetam supplementation, so that could be a potential remedy.


All things considered, I was very pleased with the effects of coluracetam. I will certainly be implementing it into my nootropic stacks, as it is one of the most noticeable and useful nootropics I have personally taken. It seemed to have a real impact on my motivation, energy, and cognition. Everyone is bound to react differently to coluracetam, but I strongly encourage nootropics users to give it a try.

You can buy Coluracetam powder and capsules at NootropicsDepot.

Reviewer 8.4
I highly recommend coluracetam for anyone who needs to spend extended periods of time working on demanding mental tasks. The cognitive boost and mental stimulation was extremely useful.

References   [ + ]


How to Understand Clinical Research, Part III: Types of Studies

In clinical research, there exist different types of studies which serve particular purposes. These studies are distinguished based on their experimental design (how the study is conducted) & the kind of data they produce– from the way a study is designed, we can draw certain expectations about the grade of evidence it produces.

Experimental designs can be described in several ways. A basic division of study designs can be made on how test subjects are enrolled, which significantly determines the study’s strength in describing a relationship between a cause (an experimental variable such as a drug to be tested) & an effect (an outcome such as cognitive performance). This particular way of classifying studies results in two main families of studies: observational studies & assignment studies.

Observational Studies

Observational studies are conducted in order to determine associations between certain prior exposures (e.g. a drug) & outcomes of interest (e.g. death).

Here, participants are selected based on exposure or outcome, depending on the type of observational study. These are more prevalent in research on nootropics as randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are generally conducted with larger samples requiring more funding. Small observational studies build up a body of evidence which provide the grounds for an RCT, a process called «hypothesis-generating» (as opposed to hypothesis-testing). Cohort studies & case-control studies are two major types of observational studies, both of which involve following a group of patients over a period of time.

Subjects in cohort studies are selected based on their having received a particular exposure, then they are followed prospectively (forward in time) until a certain outcome of interest (e.g. death) occurs. RCTs are also prospective.

Depiction of observational studies. Prospective cohort studies work from the perspective of the left viewer, while retrospective case-control studies work from the perspective of the right viewer.

In a case-control study, subjects are selected based on their exhibiting a certain outcome & tracing their history back (retrospectively) to find out whether they have had a certain exposure (e.g. used a particular drug). Retrospective case-control studies are especially useful when studying rare diseases.

Assignment Studies

Assignment studies enroll subjects to either test or control groups.

Assignment studies are subdivided based on (1) whether the allocation of subjects into test groups is randomised & (2) whether a control group is present.

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are generally considered to be the gold standard of clinical evidence for their strong internal validity, & are used to demonstrate causal relationships between experimental variables & outcomes. Randomly assigning patients to either treatment or control groups theoretically establishes equal groups, as any differences in age, race, comorbidity, or other features are equally distributed (eliminates sample selection bias). Prospective follow-up & the presence of a control group allows for comparison of the experimental variable (e.g. a new drug) against a standard treatment (to demonstrate a better treatment effect) or placebo (to demonstrate a treatment effect).

Mohamed AD, Lewis CR. Modafinil increases the latency of response in the Hayling Sentence Completion Test in healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 12;9(11):e110639.
Standard CONSORT diagram depicting enrolment, allocation, follow-up, & analysis of subjects from an RCT comparing modafinil vs. placebo.

Synthetic Studies

Systematic reviews & meta-analyses critically evaluate the literature by consolidating the results of several studies focused on the same topic.

Synthetic studies are more recent study designs that have been developed out of a need to draw from the existing evidence on a topic. Prior to the rise of systematic reviews & meta-analyses, studies were selectively cited which led to bias (e.g. selecting only the studies which supported the use of a drug & either intentionally or unwittingly omitting the others which found significant side effects). Nowadays, both are considered the highest forms of clinical evidence, producing strong inferences of treatment effects. Synthetic studies are part of the trend of comparative efficacy analyses (CEAs): gathering data on several major drugs used for the same purpose & determining which are superior. Collecting findings from multiple RCTs & observational studies can produce a more complete picture of a drug’s safety & efficacy- in other words, considering the ‘big picture’. However, before drawing conclusions, one must be cognisant of differences between the studies that have been gathered (e.g. study protocol, different doses used, different sample characteristics).

Systematic reviews present findings from a pre-defined, reproducible search of the literature- that is, the authors exhaustively describe the methods they used to search databases & how they selected which studies to include in their systematic review, usually with a pre-defined criteria set. The importance of reproducibility is to reduce bias from selective inclusion of studies– this is a weakness of narrative reviews, in which the author performs a search & simply chooses which studies to include.

Meta-analyses are systematic reviews where the gathered data is then combined, producing an estimate of the true treatment effect from the pooled data. This is commonly expressed in what’s called a Forest plot, which shows the individual trials included in the systematic review as well as a diamond representing the estimate of the true efficacy or safety measure of the drug (how to read & interpret different tables & graphs will be covered later!).

An example Forest plot, with included trials listed on the left & their findings on the right. The findings are also plotted, with the diamond representing the composite of the studies’ results.


As we have seen, the design of a clinical trial can provide a quick way to judge its findings.

  • Observational studies produce evidence of associations by following patients over a period of time. Patients are selected based on a specific previous exposure in the case of prospective cohort studies or for a certain outcome in the case of retrospective case-control studies.
  • Assignment studies produce evidence of causal relationships by assigning patients to multiple groups including a comparator arm. The most prominent example of an assignment study is the randomised control trial, which has become the standard for clinical data.
  • Synthetic evaluations of the literature, such as systematic reviews & meta-analyses, draw on existing studies to better approximate treatment effects of drugs of interest.
  • Other experimental designs which are less commonly relevant to the area of nootropics include cross-sectional observational studies & non-randomised controlled trials.
Methylene Blue Nootropics Reviews

Methylene Blue as a Nootropic? (Review)

Since its initial synthesis in 1886, the phenothiazine derivative methylene blue (MB) has been established as a highly versatile chemical agent with a diverse span of uses, ranging from treating malaria to dying textiles[1]. Within the past few years, preclinical research has suggested a possible neuroprotective benefit from MB administration. MB is believed to promote neuronal cell health by supporting mitochondrial function. Animal studies have yielded promising results in neurocognitive tests[2][3]. Here is what you need to know if you’re interested in using methylene blue.

How does Methylene Blue work?

Mitochondria are organelles within cells that play the key role of energy production. Cellular energy is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), one of the most important molecules in the cell. As the name suggests, ATP contains three linked phosphate groups. Removal of each group releases a large amount of energy, which is expended in supporting cellular function. Subsequent removal of ATP produces ADP (adenosine diphosphate) & AMP (adenosine monophosphate). ATP is produced within mitochondria as a final product of respiration, a series of biochemical reactions that extract energy from glucose. These biochemical reactions require oxygen & electron carriers (e.g. NADH).

Poteet E, Winters A, Yan L, Shufelt K, Green KN, Simpkins JW, et al. Neuroprotective actions of methylene blue & its derivatives. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48279-.
Methylene blue acts as an artificial electron carrier, promoting mitochondrial respiration. The net outcome is more energy available as ATP for cellular processes.[4]
Methylene blue supports mitochondrial respiration by functioning as an additional electron carrier[5]. MB receives electrons from NADH through mitochondrial complex I, itself being reduced to leuco-MB (MBH2). Leuco-MB then donates the electrons to cytochrome C, upon which it is recycled back to MB. These reactions serve to create a high proton (H+) concentration in the space between the inner & outer mitochondrial membranes. This leads to the passage of H+ down the concentration gradient, through mitochondrial complex V. In doing so, ADP & a phosphate (Pi) are joined to form ATP. Leuco-MB can also act as a free radical scavenger, neutralising superoxides by accepting electrons & itself becoming oxidized back to MB[6]. In this way, leuco-MB acts to prevent direct oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Rojas JC, Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Jan;96(1):32-45.
Methylene blue preferentially accumulates in more active neurones (A), & potentiates mitochondrial & synaptic activity (B). These processes result in increased & improved neurotransmission (C), which is thought to be the mechanism behind the neurocognitive benefits associated with MB.[7]
MB has been observed to preferentially localise in neurones that are more active[3]. Stimulated mitochondria in these neurones modulate genomic expression of proteins that further potentiate mitochondrial respiration via nuclear respiratory transcription factor (NRF-1), resulting in increased expression of cytochrome oxidase (COX), nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1), NMDA receptors, & AMPA receptors. Strengthened synaptic connections as a result of these processes result in improved memory.

The pharmacologic mechanism behind the neuroprotective activity of methylene blue is unique in that it does not involve a receptor-ligand interaction, as do most drugs. In addition, MB also exhibits an atypical dose-response curve– one that has been described as hormetic[8]. Hormesis is a phenomenon where lower doses produce optimum responses while higher doses or exposures may actually produce the opposite effect. Hormesis is an intriguing pattern that may explain the dose-responses associated with exercise & oxidative stress, where the right amount of exercise-induced oxidative stress induces a cascade of favourable physiologic adaptations that can mitigate more severe stressors[9].

Rojas JC, Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Jan;96(1):32-45.
An example hormetic dose-response curve. Note the inverse response caused with higher doses.[10]
As previously mentioned, metabolism of MB involves reduction to leukomethylene blue (MBH2). MB is primarily eliminated in the urine (75%)[11].

What is it like?

I have tested BlueBrainBoost’s formulation with the following results. I have noticed increased energy and decreased fatigue, with an onset of up to 1 hour and duration of 2-4 hours. The only adverse effects were discolouration of the mouth and urine. I used a dosage of 10 mg (20 drops) in the morning sublingually before brushing my teeth. During this time, I was also taking 30 mg/day coluracetam, 500 mg/day ashwagandha, & 600 mg/day NAC. I suspect that coadministration of CoQ10 and creatine may have a synergistic effect based on the pharmacologic site and mechanism of action.

Is it safe?

methylene blue nootropicMethylene blue is associated with a very favourable safety profile. It is generally well-tolerated at doses lower than 2 mg/kg.[12] The most noticeable side effect of MB is blue discolouration of the oral cavity and blue or blue-green discoloration of the urine. These effects are reversible and not harmful. [13] Staining of the teeth can be removed with repeated tooth-brushing, and discolouration of the urine ceases after the drug is fully removed from the system. Other reported adverse effects include a mild headache and dizziness[14].

MB does exhibit some serotonergic activity. This is due to its inhibition of enzymatic degradation of serotonin by MAO-A. Intravenous doses higher than 5 mg/kg have led to the development of serotonin syndrome. This risk is increased in individuals already taking other serotonergic agents (e.g. tianeptine, St. John’s Wort, common antidepressants, dextromethorphan, tramadol). For these reasons, individuals at risk should avoid coadministration of MB with serotonergic agents by at least 2 weeks (or more depending upon the agent), start at low doses, & increase carefully to an effective dose.

Neurotoxicity has been associated with some preparations of MB as a result of chemical impurities. The presence of heavy metals used in the synthesis of MB can have adverse effects on neurones. Thus, only pharmaceutical grade formulations are recommended for human consumption – not lab grade, & not aquarium grade. These formulations may not meet USP standards and may contain up to 11% contaminants.

How should I take it?

Because MB’s role as a neuroprotective agent in humans is still being studied, there is as yet no recommended dosage. The animal doses used in preclinical trials roughly converts to a human equivalent dose of 0.16–0.64 mg/kg administered sublingually. Sublingual administration may produce higher bioavailability than oral administration, but causes more staining of the mouth. I calculated my dose like so:

  1. 0.16 to 0.64 mg/kg × 54.43 kg = 8.71 mg to 34.84 mg per dose
  2. 10 mg/1 mL = 8.71 mg/x mL → 0.87 mL × 20 gtt/1 mL = 17 gtt to 3.5 mL per dose SL (gtt = drops)

It should be noted that due to the hormetic dose-response curve, the response to MB may decrease with higher doses. MB is typically formulated as a 10 mg/mL solution, where 1 drop = 0.05 mL = 0.5 mg. The bottle should be shaken well before administration.


Overall, I would recommend methylene blue to individuals looking for an inexpensive extra boost in energy. I have not tested MB long enough to notice changes in cognition or memory, but the pre-clinical studies & pharmacologic literature seem to support this benefit.

  • Methylene blue supports mitochondrial respiration & strengthens synaptic connections, which may lead to decreased fatigue and enhanced cognition & recall. MB exhibits a hormetic dose-response curve.
  • The safety profile has been well-characterised, and MB has generally been shown to be well-tolerated. I believe the most important warnings are those concerning serotonin syndrome and chemical impurities.
  • The best-estimated dosage is only an approximation from animal studies. MB is not yet recommended for human consumption for the purpose of improving cognition and memory.
  • Only pharmaceutical grade formulations of MB should be used.
Methylene Blue
Reviewer 8.3
Methylene Blue improves mood, memory and energy levels, as well as mitochondrial function (and may also delay aging). I think it is a powerful tool to have in your arsenal, and the BBB solution is cheap and convenient, therefore I highly recommend it to anyone.

References   [ + ]

1. Ginimuge PR, Jyothi SD. Methylene blue: revisited. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol.
2. Callaway NL, Riha PD, Bruchey AK, Munshi Z, Gonzalez-Lima F. Methylene blue improves brain oxidative metabolism & memory retention in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2004; 77:175–181.
3, 7. Rojas JC, Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement & neuroprotection of methylene blue. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Jan;96(1):32-45.
4. Poteet E, Winters A, Yan L, Shufelt K, Green KN, Simpkins JW, et al. Neuroprotective actions of methylene blue & its derivatives. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48279-.
5. Gonzalez-Lima F, Barksdale BR, Rojas JC. Mitochondrial respiration as a target for neuroprotection & cognitive enhancement. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 15;88(4):584-93.
6. Miclescu A, Basu S, Wiklund L. Methylene blue added to a hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution increases short-term survival in experimental cardiac arrest. Crit. Care Med. 2006; 34:2806–2813.
8. Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F. Behavioral, physiological, and biochemical hormetic responses to the auto-oxidizable dye methylene blue. Am. J. Pharm. & Toxicol. 2008; 3:72–79.
9. Ji LL, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Vina J. Role of free radicals & antioxidant signaling in skeletal muscle health and pathology. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2009;9(4):428–444.
10. Rojas JC, Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Jan;96(1):32-45.
11. Medscape® 5.1.2, (electronic version). Reuters Health Information, New York, New York.
12, 14. Ginimuge PR, Jyothi SD. Methylene blue: revisited. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;26(4):517-20.
13. Gillett MJ, Burnett JR. Medications and green urine. Intern Med J. 2006 01;36(1):64-6.