10 Conditions That Cause Chronic Fatigue

With our hectic lifestyles and less than optimal health habits, feeling like you have no energy is a modern day epidemic. For an ever-increasing number of individuals, however, feeling tired


Sleep is essential to our body. It allows the brain to consolidate memories and thoughts, and to work more efficently. Poor or inadequate sleep can wreak havoc on your mental health by disrupting your circadian rhythm, and this, in turn, causes fatigue and brain fog just like chronic fatigue syndrome.

Check out our Sleep Optimization Checklist for a list of useful tips on how to improve your sleep quality.


The most common cause of fatigue is a poor diet. A good diet is not necessarily about losing weight, it’s about eating healthy food and feeling better. In this highly advanced and globalized society where you can buy and eat all kinds of delicious foods from all over the world, we are getting fatter and sicker compared to previous generations. Here’s why…

a. Nutritional deficiencies

Iron deficiency (often found with vegetarians and vegans) and lack of vitamin B12 can cause anemia, a common pathology where the blood cannot supply enough oxygen to the body due to a lack of important nutrients.

High-potassium-foodLow potassium and magnesium levels are also associated with low energy and fatigue. Low potassium can be easily treated by eating bananas: one banana contains around 425 mg of potassium [1], so eating two bananas a day for a week can easily replenish the potassium stores of the body.

Magnesium is a key nutrient. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions, including all enzymes synthesizing ATP (the primary source of energy in cells) as well as DNA and RNA. It is, unfortunately, becoming harder and harder to find in today’s highly-processed food. Because of this, the only method to replenish the magnesium ions in the body is to use a magnesium supplement. It’s essential to get a good magnesium supplement – most of the commercial magnesium brands contain “cheap” inorganic forms for economic reasons. These are usually magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride or sulfate, which have very low bioavailability and are often used as laxatives. The most effective magnesium forms are malate, glycinate, orotate, and taurate. We recommend the malate salt which is especially effective for pain and fatigue. A less expensive option is magnesium citrate.

b. Excessive carb intake

99carbsOther than nutritional deficiency, an excessive intake of carbohydrates is a very common cause of chronic fatigue.

First of all, we need to remember that the “modern” Western diet is full of carbohydrates, particularly refined carbs such as sugar, corn syrup, fructose, as well as refined flours, grains, and starches. Not all carbs are immediately used by the body. Excessive glucose (sugar) gets stored in the body for future use as glycogen and fat. However, there is one thing that all carbs do: they make the body secrete insulin, and insulin decreases plasma levels of large amino acids that would ordinarily compete with tryptophan for transport (particularly in the blood-brain barrier), therefore increasing tryptophan availability.

Tryptophan and its metabolite, serotonin, have a complex role in the brain, but the two things they are most known for is regulating mood and hunger. Low levels of serotonin[2] have been associated with depression (even though this is recently being disputed) while high levels (especially its precursor, tryptophan[3]) have been correlated with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue.

It should also be noted that an insulin spike is followed by a crash, which can further exacerbate symptoms of mental fatigue and depression. And that’s not all!

A group of researchers at the University of Bordeaux found that when rats were given a choice between a sugar substitute and intravenous cocaine, 94% of them chose the sugar substitute.[4]

While the research on cardiovascular disease in the last fifty years has been focusing mainly on the dangers of fats, new research reveals that carbs are actually more dangerous to health than fats. A study showed that a high-carb diet increased blood fats level more than a high-fat diet![5]

If you crave carbohydrates as your primary source of energy, it’s time to cut them back. But the brain needs glucose to function, how can glucose be produced without carbs?

Luckily, this is not really a problem for the human body. If you think about it, the early human diet was made almost entirely of protein and fats. As a matter of fact, the body can produce glucose from proteins through a process called gluconeogenesis. [6]


While this idea of a low carb diet [7] may seem a crazy, it actually goes back to the 1920s [8]. Originally developed to reduce symptoms of epilepsy, (back when anticonvulsant drugs did not exist), the ketogenic diet has helped millions people all over the world lose weight and overcome their chronic fatigue as of today.

Without getting too technical, the ketogenic diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. In this process, ketone bodies are created, and they replace glucose as the body’s primary source of energy. When there is a high blood level of ketones the body goes into a ketosis state, which leads to a reduction of the frequency of epileptic seizures.

But that’s not all! Without carbs to get in the way, the body starts burning fats at a much higher rate, and this helps those in overweight in shedding excessive fats and reach the desired weight.
For more information check the keto subreddit.


Even though parasites may make you think of Third World countries, they are still fairly common in civilized nations. Tapeworms, hookworms, pin worms, liver flukes, giardia, these are just a few of the parasites that cause disease in humans.

intestinal parasites

Symptoms of parasitic infestation include:

  • fatigue and lethargy
  • abdominal pain and swelling
  • fever
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • malnutrition and anemia
  • loss of appetite and blood

The severity of these symptoms depends on the type of parasite, the number of parasites, and the site of the infestation. Most infections are asymptomatic, especially in the early stages. Parasitic infections are usually treated with benzimidazoline drugs like mebendazole (Vermox) and albendazole (Albenza) while protozoan parasites (like giardia) are treated with nitroimidazole antibiotics like metronidazole (Flagyl) and tinidazole (Tindamax).

“Colon cleanse” supplements have never been proved to work, and they should not be used as a primary treatment but only to augment the efficacy of antiparasitic drugs.

Eating good amounts of garlic, papaya, and black pepper, and taking a zinc supplement, may reduce the severity of the infestation.


thyroidHypothyroidism is a common condition caused by the thyroid not producing enough thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). This generally happens for two reasons: Iodine deficiency or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Iodine deficiency is the most common form, and it is caused by an inadequate amount of iodine in the diet. This type of hypothyroidism is fairly widespread in second and third world countries. One of the ways in which governments have tried to prevent this is by promoting the use of iodized salt (table salt with additional potassium iodide).

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system sees the thyroid cells as an enemy and attacks them. It is one of the most common causes of hypothyroidism in the United States.

But fatigue is not only a symptom of hypothyroidism: it can, (even though it’s less prevalent), also be a symptom of hyperthyroidism, the opposite of hypothyroidism.

If your metabolism is too slow (or too fast), or if you can’t stand hot (or cold) temperatures, you should check TSH, T4, and T3 levels through a blood test.

It is a good idea to supplement the building blocks of thyroid cells: iodine and selenium (200 mcg each). Iodine can be supplemented with a potassium iodide supplement or Lugol’s iodine. Selenium should be supplemented in the selenomethionine form since sodium selenite is a pro-oxidant, which is not something we generally want (unless you have cancer).[9]


A fairly common side effect of some medications (especially those that act on the brain) is fatigue. If you are taking supplements, it’s also a good idea to stop taking them one at a time for a couple days and see if there is an improvement.

In general, the worst offenders are antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihistamines, and beta blockers. Please consult a medical professional before you stop taking a psychiatric medication.

That being said said, here is a list of medications commonly associated with fatigue, sedation and brain fog:

  • Antidepressants: mirtazapine (Remeron), citalopram (Celexa), paroxetine (Paxil), trazodone (Desyrel), mianserin (Norval), amitriptyline (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), clomipramine (Anafranil) etc.
  • Antipsychotics: all of them
  • Antihistamines: diphenhydramine (Benadryl), promethazine (Phenergan), hydroxyzine (Atarax)
  • Beta-blockers: all of them
  • Benzodiazepines: alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), clonazepam (Klonopin)


adrenal-hormonesThe adrenal glands are two small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. They produce a variety of hormones, including cortisol, adrenaline, and aldosterone, through a process called steroidogenesis.

The adrenals produce three types of hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens.
Mineralocorticoids help blood pressure regulation and electrolyte balance.
Glucocorticoids — including cortisol and corticosterone — regulate the immune system as well as metabolism.
Androgens are steroids that get converted to fully functional sex hormones in the gonads and other target organs.

There are a number of diseases that affect the adrenal glands. An overproduction of cortisol causes Cushing’s syndrome and a deficiency of cortisol causes Addison’s disease. Cortisol and adrenaline are implicated in the stress response (“fight-or-flight response“). Too much cortisol promotes stress and anxiety and not enough cortisol causes chronic fatigue.

But why do the adrenals stop working properly? Two common reasons are either stress or a over-consumption of drugs that affect the adrenal glands, like caffeine and amphetamines.

About caffeine and stimulants…

Seriously, who doesn’t love a cup of coffee in the morning? It tastes great, helps you wake up and stay focused, it’s full of antioxidants, and protects your liver — this “liquid gold” can truly be a lifesaver when used correctly. But an excessive or poorly timed use of coffee and other caffeine sources, on the other hand, can stress your adrenal glands and disrupt your sleep cycle (which by itself increases cortisol).

As a rule of thumb:

  • avoid taking caffeine after 5 pm
  • limit intake of caffeine to no more than 300 mg a day (a cup of coffee usually contains between 60 to 100 mg of caffeine)
  • do not mix caffeine p0wder or coffee with other stimulants

The same principles more or less apply to stimulants. They may seem like a good idea when you’re feeling exhausted and unmotivated, but if the fatigue is a symptom of a chronic condition they end up doing more harm than good.

Excessive use of stimulants may lead to burn-out, psychosis, and neurotoxicity.


disease caused by chronic inflammationInflammation is part of the process that begins as a response of the body to harmful stimuli. Inflammation is usually caused by an infection, but that is not always the case – in some cases, the harm done by years of an unhealthy lifestyle (through smoking, drug abuse, over-consumption of alcohol, or an inadequate diet), can produce a chronic inflammatory state.

Chronic inflammation – whether caused by infection or a bad lifestyle – is associated with heart disease, muscle loss, cancer, depression (and other mood disorders), shortened lifespan, and autoimmune diseases.

Methylation cycle

The methylation cycle is a biochemical pathway that regulates a number of bodily functions, including detoxification, the immune system, energy production, and mood. Explaining the methylation cycle is a bit out of the scope of this article, and I’ll address it in a future one.

What is important to know is that individuals generally fall into two categories: under-methylators and over-methylators. Typically these genetic differences in methylation are discovered by genome testing, like 23andme.

Here you can read more about the methylation cycle, how it works and how is it linked to chronic fatigue and poor mental performance.


In the end, there are many conditions that cause or mimic chronic fatigue. As chronic fatigue is a relatively complex and still pretty unknown syndrome, it is a good idea to test for all the conditions we just explained, before giving up to the diagnosis.

As a matter of fact, there are other conditions that may cause this syndrome – like hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), or high blood ammonia – but we left those out to cover them in detail in future articles.

Have you enjoyed the article? Do you feel like you may have one of this conditions? Leave us a comment!

References   [ + ]

Bacopa Nootropics

Bacopa Monnieri: The Most Impressive Natural Nootropic

Bacopa monnieri, commonly referred to as Bacopa, it’s a plant that has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine. In India, it is also referred to as Brahmi. In the last two decades, many Ayurvedic plants, like Ashwagandha, Brahmi, and Gotu Kola, have been shown to be effective not only in Ayurveda classic books but also in scientific studies; the extract, in particular, has been shown to be as effective as some prescription medications.

Background and Benefits

Perhaps more than other top nootropics, Bacopa highlights the importance of the individual and the makeup of his biology on any given day. Although it reliably promotes enhanced memory and vivid dreaming, other effects are less consistent, often due to the large variety in potency between the different products on the market. Luckily, in the last few years, a standardized and pharmaceutical grade extract has been developed, named Bacognize®.

Bacopa Ayurvedic Medicine BenefitsIt is known to produce clarity or a slight fog, making you relaxed or slightly moody, with the potentiality of leading to mild physical symptoms (like muscle aches and intestinal bloating). In spite of all this critical talk, Bacopa is one of the most underestimated supplements, and this article will paint it as one with profound healing and nootropic abilities. Confused? Don’t worry; we got you covered!

Some of the benefits of Bacopa (according to both scientific research and anecdotal experiences) are:

  • It is neuroprotective[1] and significantly improves acquisition and retention of memories.[2]
  • It also increases acetylcholine synthesis and promotes neurogenesis by enhancing the activity of BDNF and NGF[3]
  • It has anxiolytic[4], antidepressant[5] and anti-stress effects.[6]
  • It is an antioxidant and increases lifespan in animal studies.[7]
  • It is anti-inflammatory[8] and cardioprotective.[9]
  • Bacopa may also help people with epilepsy[10], as well as children with ADHD.[11]

The sedative effect of Bacopa is almost always in the foreground, though anecdotal reports show that this effect happens most strongly at the beginning and tends to disappear after a month (or two) of consistent use. In fact, studies have shown that Bacopa’s peak nootropic effect is seen after two months[12], and keeps on getting stronger as time passes, while the anxiolytic effects are usually felt right from the first dose.

Anecdotal Reports

Before we get into the specifics of Bacopa, let’s have a look at some of the anecdotal experiences in the nootropics community to get a better understanding of how it works in healthy individuals outside the lab.

From Reddit user Nedzilla55

[…] My first nootropic experience, and it was a good one. I noticed acute effects of lowered anxiety, and over the course of a few months noticed increased memory. This amazing herb is subtle enough that I feel normal, but noticeable enough that I felt less stress and anxiety. I didn’t even realize how great it was until I got off of it, and started experiencing my usual increased anxiety. It wasn’t like an acute “Wow, I feel so calm” feeling, more like a background calm. Like turning down the volume of anxiety a couple of notches. Looking back at it, the 6-7 months I used it I was in a much better place mentally. […]

From Reddit user YoungRedPiller —

So I’ve been taking Bacopa Monnieri for about a month at this point. […] I’ll try to explain my experience with it so far.
I’ve heard that the memory effects take at least 8 weeks to show effect but I’ve been feeling some quite significant changes in my ability to recall events that have happened in the past month. It’s also improved the quality of these memories. This is a very nice effect that is very appreciated because I feel if i stick it out for another month my memory will improve noticeably.
One other effect that it’s had that I didn’t really expect it to have was that it made me completely apathetic. To everything. Studying, reading, music, doing anything at all. I’m completely careless to everything and my motivation to do things is very little. But when I start doing things, I don’t want to stop. It’s had a profound effect on my attention. I don’t know if the attention is because of the apathy or something but attention is another aspect that I like about Bacopa. Also due to the apathy, my anxiety is also very minimal in any situation. I completely have a fuck it attitude. Very appreciated as I used to be quite hyperactive.
It’s made me very calm, serene and genuinely carefree. […]

From Reddit user Tester12311

The first month: Contrary to anecdotal reports, I could definitely feel the bacopa kicking in. It acted almost as a mild downer and a definite anxiolytic. I felt calm, chilled out, and careless. […] Many initial reports include drowsiness and upset stomach. Though Bacopa did make me drowsy at first, I can only think of very specific instances with stomach upset which could easily have been as a result of what I ate that day. Besides these mild effects, there was not much else for Bacopa within the first month.
The second month and now: Throughout this entire period of taking Bacopa, I would constantly test my memory to see if it was improving. […] To be completely honest, it is very difficult to measure how much I can and cannot remember. But I can say that when people ask me if I remember something they said the week previous, I am more likely to respond positively. I am also more lucid with conversation topics as I can tie together the flow of a conversation from one topic to another. One can assume that my immediate working memory has greatly improved. […] Bacopa’s anxiolytics effects have also had a nice influence on my life. I am less nervous about social interactions especially with women or job interviews. It has gotten to the point where I really just do not care what people I don’t know think of me. […]
One of the most gratifying and prominent effects that I feel from Bacopa is the attention boost. I have a have a very strong grip on whatever I am doing. It has made reading and studying easier. I can sit and become enamored by a book. I hated reading before Bacopa. I love it now. […]

Learning and Memory

Bacopa Extract PowderBacopa is perhaps most notable for its ability to enhance memory and cognitive performance in mice.[13] In humans, this translates most clearly to improved consolidation of memories into long-term memory.[14] In these respects, bacopa has received a comparable amount of attention (in academic journals) as more mainstream and publicized herbal cognitive enhancers, such as ginkgo.

Later sections will expound on neurotransmitters, serotonin and acetylcholine in particular, which have, respectively anti-stress and pro-cognitive effects. Like other herbal nootropics, its mechanism also relies on adaptogenic properties or lowering stress (this is touched on below, from the perspective of “cytokines,” the body’s natural inflammatory agents).

While not as pronounced as the effect on long-term memory, Bacopa may also be useful for short-term memory, concentration, focus, motivation, and the likes. Clinical studies have found it effective against ADHD[15]. Another study has drawn the same conclusions[16]. This is especially encouraging for those who want to stay away from Adderall, Ritalin, and other pharmaceutical choices, and into other choices which may be more sustainable and less taxing on the psyche.


Inflammation, like oxidation, is too often presented in the press, and almost never in a light which sheds true insight on its value; gradually the public loses interest in the hype and falls into more conservative waters. Despite any skepticism, bacopa has real and impressive anti-inflammatory properties[17]. These anti-inflammatory properties are closely related to its anti-dementia effects, which are as potent as curcumin, and like curcumin may open the avenues in Alzheimer’s research for more potent semi-synthetic derivatives.

Cytokines are compounds which the body releases in response to stress or infection, and although they help to control certain illness, they can quickly lead to runaway inflammation. Many herbal nootropics work in part by regulating this runaway, negative feedback “loop.” Although it is perhaps not as strong as curcumin, there are a few studies and books summarizing bacopa’s effects on inflammation.


It has been shown in multiple studies to be as effective as common antiepileptic meds. This is likely related to its effect as a modulator of GABA[18], although a direct modulation of glutamate cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor.[19]

Oxidative Stress

The anti-stress effect may be directly related to the antioxidant capacity, as suggested by evidence[20]. Although antioxidants are beaten to death in the media, it is important in the absence of rigorous ORAC testing (free radical savaging capacity) to recognize when a particular food or supplement shows promising activity[21]. Ginkgo, bacopa, turmeric and ginger all show potential here. You can look up the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ratings for turmeric and ginger to get a rough idea of their potency.

Serotonin and BDNF

Besides its broad antioxidant properties, perhaps the most studied mechanisms of Bacopa have been centered on serotonin[22][23]. It has been shown to upregulate the serotonin transporter (SERT) and to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an animal model of depression[24]. The magnitude of the BDNF effect is supported by studies investigating bacopa’s ability to substantially improve the growth and survival of dendrites and axons: the fragile, spindly structures allowing for communication between neurons.

Dopamine and glutamate

Although bacopa is known to restore dopamine function[25], and as mentioned above, glutamate function as well, it is still not clear the extent to which these factors play into its nootropic qualities. The acetylcholine, serotonin, antioxidant and (as we will touch on later) the cardiovascular properties all likely outshine dopamine and glutamate in this respect.

Physical Health

Bacopa Monnieri has been implicated in increasing specifically cerebral blood flow independent of overall blood pressure[26] it can also decrease blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) independent of heart rate[27] by releasing nitric oxide — a molecule that helps cells communicate with each other — from the endothelium.

Bacopa is also cardioprotective, and in research has been showed to protect from several cardiotoxic substances, such as isoprotenerol.[28] and may likely have a protective effect for everyday cardiotoxic activities like smoking. drinking, and taking stimulants.

Although it has primarily been studied on opiate (morphine) related kidney damage (where it was found to be effective[29]), it may serve in the otherwise healthy as a general tonifying agent in the kidneys.


Due to its cholinergic activity, those with a known mood disorder should approach bacopa extremely cautiously. High acetylcholine levels have even been used in lab mice to simulate bipolar and borderline features[30].

Bacopa has a potent stimulatory effect on the thyroids. Persons with known thyroid conditions are accordingly advised to consult a healthcare professional before considering bacopa.
As said before, it is known to accumulate heavy metals. Nowadays, most nootropic suppliers have certificates of analysis, and this is not raised as a concern.

Closing Remarks

Buy Bacognize capsulesAlthough bacopa’s initial sedative effect may be partially balanced out by natural energizers, such as ginseng, cocoa or royal jelly, we are recommending you consult a healthcare professional before beginning such an aggressive regimen. It is instead more strongly recommended to simply lower the dose, particularly when using the 50% extract which some people may find too intense.

By the way, you can buy Bacognize capsules and powder at Nootropics Depot. Or, if you’re on a tight budget, check out Powder City’s bulk 50% extract and 20% extract capsules. I personally recommend the capsules as the powder has an unpleasant taste. The dosage depends on the type of extract you have, typically a 50% extract like Bacognize is taken 300 mg once or twice a daily, while a 20% extract is taken at 500-650 mg two to three times a day. It is typically taken with food.

The good news is that much of bacopa’s nootropic effect is cumulative. Although it does take up to four to six months to see full effects, modest effects can still be observed from switching to the lower dose after a mere two months. This is especially true when it is paired off in the long-term with other highly effective and synergistic supplements. You could even take it just one summer, completely remove it from your stack after that point, and still theoretically retain some of its nootropic qualities.

Bacopa Monnieri
Reviewer 8

References   [ + ]

1. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monniera extract against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat brain (2006)
2, 14. Chronic Effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on Human Memory (2002)
3. Bacopa monnieri and L-deprenyl differentially enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and nerve growth factor via ERK 1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the spleen of female wistar rats. (2013)
4. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: An experimental study. (1998)
5. Antidepressant-like effects of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera in mice (2015)
6. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
7. Bacopa monnieri promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans under stress conditions (2015)
8. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
9, 28. Cardioprotective Effect of Bacopa monneira Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Necrosis in Rats (1997)
10, 19. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract. (2008)
11, 15. An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. (2014)
12. Effects of a Standardized Bacopa monnieri Extract on Cognitive Performance, Anxiety, and Depression in the Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (2008)
13. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice (2004)
16. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol. (2015)
17. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. (2016)
18. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A. (2012)
20. Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. (2002)
21. Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. (2015)
22, 23. Bacopa monniera leaf extract up-regulates tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) expression: implications in memory formation. (2011)
24. Chronic Administration of Bacopa Monniera Increases BDNF Protein and mRNA Expressions: A Study in Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Animal Model of Depression (2014)
25. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats. (2013)
26. Bacopa monnieri increases cerebral blood flow in rat independent of blood pressure. (2013)
27. Bacopa monnieri and its constituents is hypotensive in anaesthetized rats and vasodilator in various artery types. (2011)
29. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity (2016)
30. Modeling bipolar disorder in mice by increasing acetylcholine or dopamine: chronic lithium treats most, but not all features. (2015)